|Articles about Biomaterials|
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| Effect of coupling agents on the local mechanical properties of bioactive dental composites by the nano-indentation technique
Ho, E. and M. Marcolongo (2005), Dent Mater 21(7): 656-64.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the use of nano-indentation as a method of determining the interfacial mechanics of bioactive composites for mandibular bone substitutes. METHODS: Three coupling agents (PMMA-MAA, PMMA-MA and silane) were used to treat hydroxyapatite (HA) particles before incorporation into a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix. Nano-indentation was used to determine the hardness and Young's modulus on the HA particle surface, at the HA/PMMA interface and in the PMMA matrix region for each of the four groups. In addition bulk four-point bending tests were conducted on each of the four groups as a comparison. RESULTS: The findings resulted in significant differences in the local interfacial Young's modulus between the polymer-treated composites and the uncoupled control specimens with a marked improvement (50%) in modulus with either polymertreated group. Similarly, the bending modulus of the polymer-treated groups was significantly higher than the un-treated control group; however, these differences were not as pronounced (approximately 15%). SIGNIFICANCE: The co-polymer-treated composites resulted in improved interfacial modulus as compared to the un-treated controls and that the nano-indentation technique is a powerful tool for understanding the local interfacial mechanics of bioactive composites.
| Effect of deproteination on bone mineral morphology: implications for biomaterials and aging
Carter, D. H., A. J. Scully, et al. (2002), Bone 31(3): 389-95.
Abstract: Bone mineral morphology is altered by processing and this is rarely considered when preparing bone as a bioimplant material. To examine the degree of transformation, a commercial, coarsely particulate bone mineral biomaterial produced by prolonged deproteination, defatting, dehydration, and heating (donor material) was compared with similar particles of human bone (recipient material) prepared optimally by low-temperature milling. The two powders were freeze-substituted and embedded without thawing in Lowicryl K4M before sectioning for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (other aliquots were processed by traditional TEM methods). To maximize resolution, electron micrographs were image-enhanced by digitization and printed as negatives using a Polaroid Sprint Scan 45. In addition to their morphology, the particles were examined for antigenicity (specific by reference to fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-conjugated fibronectin, and nonspecific by reference to general FITC-conjugated immunoglobulins). Results showed that the optimally prepared human bone fragments stained discretely for fibronectin with negligible background autofluorescence. In contrast, the bioimplant fragments stained extensively with this and any other FITC-conjugated antibody and, unlike fresh bone, it also autofluoresced a uniform yellow. This difference was also expressed structurally and, although the bioimplant mineral consisted of rhomboidal plates up to 200 nm across and 10 nm thick, the optimally prepared bone mineral was composed of numerous clusters of 5-nm-wide sinuous calcified filaments of variable density and indeterminate length (which became straight needles 50 nm long and 5 nm thick following traditional chemical TEM fixation/staining). It was concluded that the inorganic phase of bone is both morphologically and immunologically transmutable and that, in biomaterials, the transformation is apparently so great that a broad indigenous antigenicity is unmasked, increasing the likelihood of resorption or rejection. This marked change may also provide preliminary insight into a more modest natural aging phenomenon with the localized lateral fusion of calcified filaments into less flexible, more immunologically reactive fenestrated plates.
| Effect of dietary supplementation of chitosan and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharide on serum parameters and the insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets
Tang, Z. R., Y. L. Yin, et al. (2005), Domest Anim Endocrinol 28(4): 430-41.
Abstract: The study was to determine effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan (COS) and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides (GMOS) on some serum biochemical indices, serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, and hepatic and long gissimus muscle IGF-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets. Twenty six Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets at the age of 15 days were used. The piglets had access to creep feed during the suckling. Six piglets were sacrificed for sampling at the beginning of the study. The other 20 piglets were individually housed in metabolic cages and randomly allotted to four corn and soybean meal-based diets including the control group, the antibiotic group with 110 mg lincomycin/kg diet, the COS group containing 0.025% COS, and the GMOS group with 0.20% GMOS, respectively, in a 2-week feeding experiment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was reduced whereas serum total protein concentration was increased (P<0.05) in responses to the COS and GMOS supplementation. Dietary supplementation of COS and GMOS also increased (P<0.05) the serum GH and IGF-I levels along with enhanced hepatic and the muscle IGF-I mRNA abundance. Dietary supplementation of oligosaccharides such as COS and GMOS may improve growth and feed conversion efficiency by increasing plasma GH and IGF-I levels, in the early-weaned piglets.
| Effect of DNA structure on the formation of collagen-DNA complex
Kaya, M., Y. Toyama, et al. (2005), Int J Biol Macromol 35(1-2): 39-46.
Abstract: Using various types of DNAs prepared from plasmid DNA, complete double-stranded DNA (ds.DNA) with linear and cyclic forms and double-stranded DNA coexisting with single-stranded DNA (ss.DNA), the structure and fibrillogenesis of the collagen-DNA complex were investigated by means of turbidity, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The rate of fibrillogenesis of the collagen-DNA complex significantly depends on the DNA structure. The structure of the fibrils formed in the complexes showed a marked difference between the ds.DNA and ss.DNA complexes with collagen. Spatial distribution of the DNA and collagen in the complexes suggests that the characteristic collagen-DNA interaction depends on the DNA forms.
| Effect of electrostatic forces on the dynamic rheological properties of injectable collagen biomaterials
Rosenblatt, J., B. Devereux, et al. (1992), Biomaterials 13(12): 878-86.
Abstract: Injectable collagen is a concentrated dispersion of phase-separated collagen fibres in aqueous solution used to correct dermal contour defects through intradermal injection. The effect of electrostatic forces on the rheology of injectable collagen was studied by observation of the birefringence of collagen fibres through a polarizing microscope as well as by oscillatory rheological measurements on dispersions of varying ionic strengths (0.06-0.30). The birefringence of fibres progressively increased as ionic strength was reduced from 0.30 to 0.06. The linear viscoelastic measurements displayed a logarithmic relationship between storage (and loss) moduli and frequency over oscillation frequencies of 0.1-100 rad/s. The associated relaxation time spectra, interpreted using the theory of Kamphuis et al. for concentrated dispersions, show that collagen fibres become more flexible as ionic strength increases. This result was analysed at the molecular level from the perspective that collagen fibres are a liquid-crystalline phase of rigid rod collagen molecules which have phase-separated from solution. Electrostatic forces affect the volume fraction of water present in the collagen fibres which in turn alters the rigidity of the fibres. Flexible collagen fibre dispersions displayed emulsion-like flow properties whereas more rigid collagen fibre dispersions displayed suspension-like flow properties. Changes in fibre rigidity significantly alter the injectability of collagen dispersions which is critical in clinical performance.
| Effect of experimental parameters on the formation of alginate-chitosan nanoparticles and evaluation of their potential application as DNA carrier
Douglas, K. L. and M. Tabrizian (2005), J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 16(1): 43-56.
Abstract: This study introduces a new procedure to prepare alginate-chitosan nanoparticles and examines several experimental parameters in relation to their formation and characteristics. Using DLS and TEM analysis, nanoparticle formation was shown to be predominantly affected by the ratio of alginate to chitosan, the molecular weight of the biopolymers and the solution pH. We report a method that results in spherical particles with mean diameters ranging from 323 nm to 1.6 microm, depending on the preparation conditions. The smallest particles were formed using lower molecular weight polymers with pH between 5.0 and 5.6 and having an alginate/chitosan weight ratio of 1:1.5. We have shown that DNA can be loaded with 60% association efficiency. Our system demonstrates suitable size, loading and release characteristics for application in drug- and gene-delivery systems.
| Effect of fiber diameter on spreading, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblastic cells on electrospun poly(lactic acid) substrates
Badami, A. S., M. R. Kreke, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(4): 596-606.
Abstract: Electrospinning is a promising method to construct fused-fiber biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, but the efficacy of this approach depends on how substrate topography affects cell function. Previously, it has been shown that linear, parallel raised features with length scales of 0.5-2 microm direct cell orientation through the phenomenon of contact guidance, and enhance phenotypic markers of osteoblastic differentiation. To determine how the linear, random raised features produced by electrospinning affect proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) diblock copolymers were electrospun with mean fiber diameters of 0.14-2.1 microm onto rigid supports. MC3T3-E1 osteoprogenitor cells cultured on fiber surfaces in the absence of osteogenic factors exhibited a lower cell density after 7 and 14 days of culture than cells cultured on spin-coated surfaces, but cell density increased with fiber diameter. However, in the presence of osteogenic factors (2 mM beta-glycerophosphate, 0.13 mM L-ascorbate-2-phosphate), cell density after 7 and 14 days of culture on fiber surfaces was comparable to or exceeded spin-coated controls, and alkaline phosphatase activity after 14 days was comparable. Examination of cell morphology revealed that cells grown on fibers had smaller projected areas than those on planar surfaces. However, cells attached to electrospun substrates of 2.1 microm diameter fibers exhibited a higher cell aspect ratio than cells on smooth surfaces. These studies show that topographical factors designed into biomaterial scaffolds can regulate spreading, orientation, and proliferation of osteoblastic cells.
| Effect of fibronectin on the adhesion of an established cell line to a surface reactive biomaterial
Seitz, T. L., K. D. Noonan, et al. (1982), J Biomed Mater Res 16(3): 195-207.
Abstract: We have demonstrated that an established hamster cell line (NIL 8 M-2) will adhere to the bioceramic bioglass. The rate at which the NIL 8 M-2 cells assume a spread morphology on bioglass is density dependent and the morphology displayed by NIL 8 M-2 cells attached to bioglass is much more elongated than that displayed by NIL 8 M-2 cells attached to nonreactive glass. Precoating the bioglass with the plasma form of human fibronectin significantly reduces the density dependent nature of cell spreading. Coating the bioglass with fibronectin also reduces the time required for cell spreading and changes the morphology of the attached cells from an elongated to an extremely flattened shape. Our work raises the possibility that bone-implant adhesion might be improved by introducing molecules relevant to cell-substrate attachment into the biomaterial prior to implantation.
| Effect of filament diameter and extracellular matrix molecule precoating on neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell behavior on multifilament entubulation bridging device in vitro
Wen, X. and P. A. Tresco (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A
Abstract: At present there is no clinically effective treatment for injuries or pathological processes that disrupt the continuity of axons in the mature central nervous system. However, a number of studies suggest that a tremendous potential exists for developing biomaterial based therapies. In particular, biomaterials in the form of bridging substrates have been shown to support at least some level of axonal regeneration across the lesion site, but display a limited capacity for directing axons toward their targets. To improve the directionality and outgrowth rate of the axonal regeneration process, filaments and tubes appear promising, but the technology is far from optimized. As a step toward optimization, the influence of filament diameter and various extracellualr matrix coatings on nerve regeneration was evaluated in this article using a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant model. An increasing pattern of alignment and outgrowth of neurites in the direction parallel the long axis of the packed filament bundles with decreasing filament diameters ranging from supracellular and beyond (500 to 100 mum), cellular (30 mum), down to subcellular size (5 mum) was observed. Such effects became most prominent on filament bundles with individual filament diameters in the range of cellular size and below (5 and 30 mum) where highly directional and robust neuronal outgrowth was achieved. In addition, laminin-coated filaments that approached the size of spinal axons support significantly longer regenerative outgrowth than similarly treated filaments of larger diameter, and exceed outgrowth distance on similarly sized filaments treated with fibronectin. These data suggested the feasibility of using a multifilament entubulation bridging device for supporting directional axonal regeneration. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2005.
| Effect of friction on anodic polarization properties of metallic biomaterials
Okazaki, Y. (2002), Biomaterials 23(9): 2071-7.
Abstract: The effect of friction on the anodic polarization properties of metallic biomaterials in a physiological saline solution was investigated. The current density during friction becomes higher than during the static condition. The fluctuation range of the current density caused by the destruction and formation of passive film was observed. For SUS316L stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy, the fluctuation range was observed in the passivity zone. Otherwise, for Ti alloys, the fluctuation range was observed in both the activity and passivity zones. The decrease of the corrosion potential for Ti alloys due to friction was much larger than that of SUS316L stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy. From this result, it was considered that in a the frictional environment, the stressing zone turned anodic and its periphery cathodic, and corrosion tended to progress more than in the static environment. The effect of wear on the anodic polarization curves also changed depending on the frictional load, potential zone and the pH of the solution. A rapid increase in current density due to corrosion starting from the frictional area was found in the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al alloys containing Al. However, for the new Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy, this rapid increase was not seen in the high-potential region. The effect of the lateral reciprocal speed was also negligible for the new Ti alloy. It was found that the new Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy exhibited excellent corrosion resistance under friction.
| Effect of hip hemiarthroplasty on articular cartilage and bone in a canine model
Minihane, K. P., T. M. Turner, et al. (2005), Clin Orthop Relat Res(437): 157-63.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if acetabular articular cartilage damage occurs in the presence or absence of changes in subchondral plate thickness or porosity and trabecular bone architecture after hip hemiarthroplasty. Eight canines were sacrificed 6 months after receiving unilateral hemiarthroplasties in which a cobalt chrome alloy femoral head was used. The acetabular cartilage, subchondral plate, and trabecular bone were quantitatively evaluated. Although the articular cartilage in the treated hip showed gross and histologic degenerative changes, there were no differences in the treated and contralateral hips in any of the trabecular bone parameters or subchondral plate thickness. However, the subchondral plate porosity was increased 2.6-fold in the treated hip. Therefore, degradation of cartilage can occur in the absence of thickening of the subchondral plate or alterations in the supporting trabecular bone architecture. These observations provide a better understanding of the role that periarticular bone has in the degenerative process after hemiarthoplasty.
| Effect of hydrocarbon chain length of amphiphilic ruthenium dyes on solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaics
Schmidt-Mende, L., J. E. Kroeze, et al. (2005), Nano Lett 5(7): 1315-20.
Abstract: We studied the influence of the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain length of amphiphilic ruthenium dyes on the device performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. We found that the dyes with longer hydrocarbon chains gave higher efficiency values when used as a sensitizer in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. With increasing chain length, we observed higher currents and open-circuit voltages up to a limiting chain length. We attribute this improvement to the expected larger distance between TiO2 and the hole conductor, which seems to suppress recombination effectively.
| Effect of hydroxyapatite coating crystallinity on dissolution and osseointegration in vivo
Xue, W., X. Liu, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 74(4): 553-61.
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating with different crystallinities were deposited by plasma spraying and vapor-flame treatment process. Their crystallinities are about 55 and 98%, respectively. These coatings were implanted in cortical bone, muscle, and marrow of dogs. The dissolution and osseointegration behavior were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation histological analysis. The results obtained indicated that after implanted in muscle, a bone-like apatite layer was formed on the surface of as-sprayed coating, which was not observed on the surface of the treated coating. The as-sprayed coating has the ability to induce new bone formation on its surface after implanted in marrow. In contrast, the treated coating displays a limited bone bioactivity. The vapor-flame process diminishes the short-term osseointegration properties of the HA coating, but no significant affection was found after three months implantation. Either in muscle or in cortical bone, treated coating exhibits higher stability than the as-sprayed coating, in some conditions.
| Effect of hydroxyapatite-coated tibial components on changes in bone mineral density of the proximal tibia after uncemented total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
Petersen, M. M., P. M. Gehrchen, et al. (2005), J Arthroplasty 20(4): 516-20.
Abstract: Sixteen patients scheduled for an uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were randomized to receive a tibial component either with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. In 4 regions of interest, prospective measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed in the proximal tibia. Two years after the operation, the only significant change in BMD was in the lateral tibial condyle, where BMD had increased by 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 2.3%-9.9%) in patients with tibial components without HA. The intragroup changes (0-24 months) in the uncoated group and HA-coated group were significantly different (P =.003) in these regions of interest. There was no significant effect of HA coating on bone remodeling pattern of the proximal tibia.
| Effect of immobilized bone morphogenic protein 2 coating of titanium implants on peri-implant bone formation
Schliephake, H., A. Aref, et al. (2005), Clin Oral Implants Res 16(5): 563-9.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that immobilization of bone morphogenic protein (BMP2) on the surface of titanium implants can enhance peri-implant bone formation. Ten adult female foxhounds received experimental titanium screw implants in the mandible 3 months after removal of all premolar teeth. Three types of implant surfaces were evaluated in each animal: (i) implants with machined titanium surface, (ii) implants coated with collagen I, (iii) implants coated with collagen I, chondroitin sulphate (CS) and BMP2. Peri-implant bone regeneration was assessed using histomorphometry after 1 and 3 months in five dogs each by measuring bone-implant contact (BIC) and the volume density of the newly formed peri-implant bone (BVD). After 1 month, there was no significant enhancement in BIC values but volume density of the newly formed peri-implant bone was significantly higher in the two groups of coated implants. No significant difference was found between collagen and BMP2 coating. After 3 months, BIC was significantly higher in both collagen and BMP2-coated implants compared with implants with machined surfaces. Peri-implant BVD was also significantly increased in coated implants in comparison with machined surfaces. It was concluded that collagen coating of dental screw implants can enhance BIC and peri-implant bone formation. Addition of BMP2 does not increase peri-implant bone formation in the present application.
| Effect of isoliquiritigenin on viability and differentiated functions of human hepatocytes maintained on PEEK-WC-polyurethane membranes
De Bartolo, L., S. Morelli, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(33): 6625-34.
Abstract: In this study, we tested the ability of microporous membranes synthesised from a polymeric blend of modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) and polyurethane (PU) to support long-term maintenance and differentiation of human liver cells. The effect of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), which is a component of liquorice extract, exhibiting growth stimulatory and antiproliferative dose-dependent effect was investigated by comparing cultures treated with ISL with those untreated. To this purpose, flat-sheet membranes were prepared by a blend of PEEK-WC and PU polymers by phase inverse technique. The morphological and physico-chemical properties were characterised, respectively, by scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle measurements. Human hepatocytes cultured on PEEK-WC-PU membranes were constant up to 1 month albumin production and urea synthesis as well as the synthesis of total proteins. The liver-specific functions were expressed at high levels when cells were cultured on membranes with respect to collagen. Also the biotransformation functions were maintained for all culture periods: the ISL elimination rate increased during the culture time and high values were measured up to 22 days. Thereafter, a decrease was observed. ISL stimulated the proliferation of hepatocytes cultured on both substrata but did not affect their liver-specific functions. Hepatocytes cultured on PEEK-WC-PU membranes responded very well to ISL and expressed high levels of P450 cytochrome. These results demonstrated that long-term maintenance of human liver differentiation can be achieved on PEEK-WC-PU membranes. The incubation with ISL at the investigated concentration could stimulate the proliferation of human hepatocytes in biohybrid systems.
| Effect of laser perforation on the remodeling of acellular matrix grafts
Bergmeister, H., P. Boeck, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 74(1): 495-503.
Abstract: Autologous cells migrate only slightly into acellular matrix grafts. This study was carried out in small-diameter, allogeneic matrix grafts to investigate the effects on cell repopulation and remodeling caused by increased wall porosity induced by laser perforation. Allogeneic ovine carotid arteries were decellularized by dye-mediated photooxidation (Photofix). Matrix grafts (10 cm x 4 mm i.d.) were perforated with holes of 50 microm diameter at a density of 50 holes/cm(2) using a Ti-sapphire laser. The grafts were implanted in the carotid arteries of 10 sheep and were compared to nonperforated grafts implanted contralaterally. The prostheses were retrieved after 6 weeks or 3 or 6 months following implantation and were evaluated by histologic examination, immunohistochemical staining, and scanning electron microscopy. All grafts, except one of the perforated specimens, remained patent. Perforated implants, examined at 6 weeks, showed faster recellularization with endothelial cells than did the corresponding contralateral controls. Perforated grafts, examined at 6 months, showed a significantly thicker neointima and clear signs of neovascularization: endothelial cells, basal lamina, elastic fibers, circular and longitudinally orientated smooth muscle cells in comparison to nonperforated specimens. Repopulation of the decellularized matrix with host cells was higher in the perforated than in the nonperforated prostheses. These results suggest that the increased matrix porosity induced by laser perforation promotes graft remodeling and reconstitution with host cells.
| Effect of microcapsule composition and short-term immunosuppression on intraportal biocompatibility
Toso, C., Z. Mathe, et al. (2005), Cell Transplant 14(2-3): 159-67.
Abstract: With higher nutrient and oxygen supply and close contact to blood, the portal vein is a possible alternative to the peritoneal cavity for transplantation of encapsulated cells. Data regarding intraportal biocompatibility of microcapsules are lacking. Microcapsules were built from five alginate types differing in their molar mass and mannuronic/guluronic acid ratios by complex formation with divalent cations (barium or calcium) or mixtures of divalent cations and polycations. They were injected in the portal vein of rats, and cellular and fibrotic pericapsular infiltration thickness was measured 3 and 7 days after implantation. Overgrowth was characterized using various stainings or immunohistochemistry (hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, ED-1 for monocyte/macrophage, alpha-actin for myofibroblasts, CD31 for endothelial cells). The impact of short-term immunosuppression (gadolinium-chloride IV 20 mg/kg/day on days--1 and 4 as well as 10 days of rapamycin PO 1 mg/kg/day, tacrolimus PO 3 mg/kg/day, or combinations of rapamycin/tacrolimus or gadolinium/tacrolimus) was further assessed 3, 7, and 42 days after implantation. Overall, overgrowth increased from day 3 to day 7 (p < 0.05). Three and 7 days after implantation, polycation-containing microcapsules induced more reaction than microbeads (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01). Considering polycation-free beads, barium-alginate induced the weakest reaction. Biocompatibility of microbeads was independent of mannuronic/guluronic acid ratio and molar mass of the alginate. Infiltration was mainly a monocyte/macrophage-rich foreign body reaction, but an eosinophil-containing immunoallergic reaction was also observed. Short-term immunosuppression significantly reduced infiltration in all conditions and up to 42 days after implantation. Biocompatibility after intraportal infusion was best for barium-alginate microbeads and poorest for polycation-containing microcapsules. Short- and long-term overgrowth could be significantly reduced by short-term immunosuppression.
| Effect of microtextured surfaces on the performance of percutaneous devices
Walboomers, X. F. and J. A. Jansen (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 74(3): 381-7.
Abstract: Along the percutaneous part of implantable devices, like (semi-)permanent catheters, epithelial downgrowth can occur. This process can eventually lead to implant loss. Various treatments for the catheter surface have been proposed, to improve their performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a microgroove pattern on the tube surface, on epithelial downgrowth. Catheterlike implants were made of silicone tubes, with anchoring cuffs made of titanium-fiber mesh. A thin sheet of silicone with microgrooves was applied on the tubes. Two types of texturing were used, a square groove of 10 microm wide and 1 microm deep; or a V-shaped groove of 40 microm wide. The grooves were directed either along the long axis of the catheter tube (grooves perpendicular to the skin surface) or circling around the catheter (grooves directed parallel to the skin surface). As controls, catheters with a smooth outer surface were used. Implants were placed in 30 rats, with a follow-up period of 9 weeks. During this time, animals were inspected biweekly, and catheter exit sites were evaluated using a scoring system. At the end of the 9-week period the implants and surrounding tissues were processed for histological evaluation. For the clinical evaluation of the exit sites, no statistical differences were found between the study groups. Histologically, epithelial downgrowth was observed for all samples. The histomorphometrical measurements showed that there were no differences in downgrowth between the smooth and parallel-grooved catheters. However, there was increased epithelial downgrowth along the catheters with grooves perpendicular to the skin. In conclusion, a grooved microtexture can direct epithelial tissue ingrowth, but this study found no beneficial effects of the guidance phenomenon.
| Effect of molecular weight on the exponential growth and morphology of hyaluronan/chitosan multilayers: a surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy investigation
Kujawa, P., P. Moraille, et al. (2005), J Am Chem Soc 127(25): 9224-34.
Abstract: The layer-by-layer growth of multilayer assemblies of two polysaccharides, the polyanion hyaluronan (HA) and the polycation chitosan (CH), was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, with primary emphasis on the effect of the polysaccharide molecular weights on the film thickness and surface morphology. The HA/CH multilayers exhibit an exponential increase of the optical film thickness with the number of deposited bilayers. We show that the multilayer thickness at a given stage depends on the size of both CH, the diffusing polyelectrolyte, and HA, the non-diffusing species. Assemblies (12 bilayers) of high molecular weight polysaccharides (HA, 360,000; CH, 160,000) were twice as thick (approximately 900 nm vs approximately 450 nm) as those obtained with low molecular weight polymers (HA, 30,000; CH, 31,000), as assessed by AFM scratch tests. The exponential growth rate is the same for the high and low molecular weight pairs; the larger film thicknesses observed by SPR and by AFM arising from an earlier onset of the steep exponential growth phase in the case of the high molecular weight pair. In all cases, isolated islets form during the deposition of the first CH layer onto the underlying HA. Upon further film growth, individual islets coalesce into larger vermiculate features. The transition from distinct islands to vermiculate structures depends on the molecular weights of the polysaccharides and the lower molecular weight construct presents larger worm-like surface domains than the high molecular weight pair.
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