|Articles about Biomaterials|
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| Effect of 1-piece and 3-piece AcrySof IOLs on the development of PCO after cataract surgery
Olson, R. J. (2005), J Cataract Refract Surg 31(3): 459-60.
| Effect of additives on encapsulation efficiency, stability and bioactivity of entrapped lysozyme from biodegradable polymer particles
Srinivasan, C., Y. K. Katare, et al. (2005), J Microencapsul 22(2): 127-38.
Abstract: Low encapsulation efficiency, incomplete and erratic release profiles are the most common features of controlled released protein delivery systems employing biodegradable polymers. In the present study, lysozyme as a model protein was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres using solvent evaporation method and the effect of amphiphilic stabilizer, a basic salt and a lyoprotectant on microparticle formulation was evaluated. Incorporation rat serum albumin (RSA) in the internal aqueous phase during emulsion increased the encapsulation efficiency of lysozyme and maintained the bioactivity. Use of NaHCO3 improved the encapsulation efficiency of lysozyme from 15-94%, but at the cost of reduced in vitro release characteristics. Incorporation of both RSA and NaHCO3 improved the bioactivity of lysozyme and decreased burst release of the protein from the polymer particle, but reduced the encapsulation efficiency from 90-70%. Addition of sucrose in the internal aqueous phase lowered the encapsulation efficiency which was restored by its addition in the external aqueous phase. Maintenance of internal aqueous phase pH close to the iso-electric point of the protein and osmotic balance between the internal aqueous phase and the external aqueous phase during solvent evaporation method helped in better encapsulation of the protein drug. In vitro release of the lysozyme correlated with the effect of different excipients on entrapment in polymer matrix. Entrapment efficiency as high as 76%, low burst effect and high bioactivity of the entrapped lysozyme was observed from the polymer particles. Use of RSA, sucrose and NaHCO3 helped in a co-operative way towards the formulation of particles entrapping bioactive lysozyme.
| Effect of amniotic fluid on peri-implant capsular formation
M, D. N., U. Cobanoglu, et al. (2005), Aesthetic Plast Surg 29(3): 174-80.
Abstract: Although commonly used biomaterials are physically and chemically stable, nonimmunogenic, and nontoxic, implanted and blood-contact biomaterials trigger a wide variety of unwanted responses, including inflammation, thrombosis, infection, and fibrosis. Peri-implant fibrosis is the response most commonly seen by plastic surgeons. In this study, the authors hypothesized that as hyaluronic acid (HA) reduces scar formation by inhibiting the activity of mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes, human amniotic fluid (HAF), which contains high concentrations of HA, HA-stimulating activator (HASA), and other factors, might prevent the formation of fibrous capsules and capsule contracture when applied intraluminally. Two 1 x 1-cm silicone blocks were placed dorsally into separate surgically created pockets underneath the panniculus carnosus muscle, distant from the incisions, in each of the 10 rats in the study. At the time of implant insertion, 2 ml of HAF was instilled into the cranially located pockets in group 1, whereas 2 ml of saline solution was instilled into the caudally located pockets in group 2. After 6 months, intracapsular static and dynamic pressure measurements were made, and then all the peri-implant capsules were excised and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde. The thicknesses of the capsules were measured in three different areas of each section, and a mean was calculated. Capsular firmness, according to the static and dynamic pressure readings, was significantly greater in the control group, which had saline solution introduced into the pocket, than in the treatment group, which had HAF used in the same manner. The mean total thickness of the capsules surrounding the implants was 876.7 microm in the control group, as comparied with 466.8 microm in the HAF-treated group. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Because of its ability to reduce capsular thickness and firmness and also because it can be stored in a freezer if it is prepared in a cell-free manner, HAF would appear to be a useful adjunct in the prevention of capsular contracture formation.
| Effect of applied uniaxial stress on rate and mechanical effects of cross-linking in tissue-derived biomaterials
Chachra, D., P. F. Gratzer, et al. (1996), Biomaterials 17(19): 1865-75.
Abstract: Conformational changes in collagen fibrils, and indeed the triple helix, can be produced by application of mechanical stress or strain. We have demonstrated that the rate of cross-linking in glutaraldehyde and epoxide homobifunctional reagents can be modulated by uniaxial stress (strain). Two poly(glycidyl ether) epoxides were used: Denacol EX-810 (a small bifunctional reagent), and Denacol EX-512 (a large polyfunctional reagent). To prevent any possible effect from being masked by saturation of cross-linking sites, bovine pericardium was cross-linked to such an extent that the increase in collagen denaturation temperature, Td, was one-half of the maximal rise achievable with each reagent. Uniaxial tensile stress of 0, 15, 124 or 233 kPa was applied during cross-linking. Cross-linking rate (as observed by increase in Td) increased with increasing stress to a maximum at 124 kPa in glutaraldehyde at pH 7 but decreased in EX-810 at pH 7. In each case, the effect was small but statistically significant. No effect was observed with the larger EX-512. Cross-linking under increasing stress also showed systematic effects on mechanical properties: decreasing extensibility and plastic strain while increasing tensile strength. In each case, the effects of the epoxides were slightly different from those of glutaraldehyde. In preparation for the above experiments, studies of the effect of pH, temperature, and exposure time were carried out for each epoxide and (to a lesser extent) for glutaraldehyde. Again, systematic changes in mechanical properties were observed with increasing Td. Conformational changes in collagen produced by mechanical stress (strain) modulate the rate of cross-linking and the resulting mechanical properties; however, the effects are sensitive to the reagent employed.
| Effect of argon-plasma treatment on proliferation of human-skin-derived fibroblast on chitosan membrane in vitro
Zhu, X., K. S. Chian, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 73(3): 264-74.
Abstract: Chitosan is not only a nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable polymer, but has also a chemical structure similar to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which promote scarless wound healing of skin. In this study, chitosan membranes were treated with argon plasma to improve their surface hydrophilicity. The results showed that the water contact angles of these surface-treated membranes were significantly reduced from 60.76 to 11.57 degrees. The total surface energy was increased from 41.06 to 67.31 mJ/m(2), with 60-86.95% improvement in the gamma-negative component and a 20% difference in the nonpolar component. Argon-plasma-treated chitosan membranes exhibited excellent attachment, migration, and proliferation of the human-skin-derived fibroblasts (hSFs) compared to the untreated ones. It was found that the duration of argon-plasma treatment influenced the cell proliferation, and the optical densities in MTT assay were enhanced. Argon-plasma treatment improved the surface hydrophilicity of chitosan membranes and promoted the attachment and proliferation of hSFs.
| Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model
Fisher, J. P., Z. Lalani, et al. (2004), J Biomed Mater Res A 68(3): 428-38.
Abstract: In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion. To test this hypothesis, healing bone was investigated within a rabbit incisor extraction socket, a subcritical size bone defect that resists significant soft tissue invasion by virtue of its conformity. After removal of the incisor teeth, one tooth socket was left as an empty control, one was filled with crosslinked polymer networks formed from the hydrophobic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), and one was filled with a hydrogel formed from the hydrophilic oligomer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF). At five different times (4 days as well as 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), jaw bone specimens containing the tooth sockets were removed. We analyzed bone healing by histomorphometrical analysis of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections as well as immunohistochemically stained sections. The proposed hypothesis, that a hydrophilic material would hinder bone healing, was supported by the histomorphometrical results. In addition, the immunohistochemical results reflect molecular signaling indicative of the early invasion of platelets, the vascularization of wound-healing tissue, the differentiation of migrating progenitor cells, and the formation and remodeling of bone tissue. Finally, the results emphasize the need to consider biomaterial properties and their differing effects upon endogenous growth factors, and thus bone healing, during the development of tissue engineering devices.
| Effect of biomaterial surface charge on the inflammatory response: evaluation of cellular infiltration and TNF alpha production
Hunt, J. A., B. F. Flanagan, et al. (1996), J Biomed Mater Res 31(1): 139-44.
Abstract: A rat model was used to investigate the effect of net surface charge on polymer biocompatibility and its potential to modify and stimulate the inflammatory response. Poly(ether)urethane was taken as the base material and the net charge altered by introducing sulphonate ionic groups to the polymer backbone. Three differently charged poly(ether)urethanes were made with 10, 20, and 30% sulphonate substitution, giving a range of negative charge, with unmodified poly(ether)urethane used as a control. The polymers were implanted intramuscularly into rats for 2 days, and for 1, 2, and 12 weeks. After explantation, the cellular infiltration in the tissue surrounding the implants was evaluated using immunohistochemistry to stain for specific cell types: macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and the cytokine TNF alpha. In situ hybridization was used to detect expression of mRNA encoding TNF alpha. Stained sections were analyzed and the cellular response quantified using image analysis. Initially macrophages and neutrophils were observed around all the materials, but neutrophils were absent in all samples at 12 weeks. The 2-day time point had significantly more macrophages than the later time points. By 2 weeks the 20%-charged polymer elicited significantly less neutrophil infiltration than the other three polymers. In all samples where macrophages were observed, cells staining positive fore TNF alpha protein and message also were observed. No T or B lymphocytes were observed in the infiltrates around the materials at any time point. The results indicate that surface charge can influence the early phase acute inflammatory response to an implanted material.
| Effect of biomaterial surface properties on fibronectin-alpha(5)beta(1) integrin interaction and cellular attachment
Lee, M. H., P. Ducheyne, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(9): 1907-16.
Abstract: The ability of fibronectin (Fn) to mediate cell adhesion through binding to alpha(5)beta(1) integrins is dependent on the conditions of its adsorption to the surface. Using a model system of alkylsilane SAMs with different functional groups (X=OH, COOH, NH(2) and CH(3)) and an erythroleukemia cell line expressing a single integrin (alpha(5)beta(1)), the effect of surface properties on the cellular adhesion with adsorbed Fn layers was investigated. (125)I-labeled Fn, a modified biochemical cross-linking/extraction technique and a spinning disc apparatus were combined to quantify the Fn adsorption, integrin binding and adhesion strength, respectively. This methodology allows for a binding equilibrium analysis that more closely reflects cellular adhesion found in stable tissue constructs in vivo. Differences in detachment strength and integrin binding were explained in terms of changes in the adhesion constant (psi, related to affinity) and binding efficiency of the adsorbed Fn for the alpha(5)beta(1) integrins (CH(3) approximately NH(2)
| Effect of bone mineral density and amorphous diamond coatings on insertion torque of bone screws
Koistinen, A., S. S. Santavirta, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(28): 5687-94.
Abstract: In this study, the potential of high-quality amorphous diamond (AD) coatings in reducing the torque and failures of bone screws was studied. Torque values were recorded for 32 stainless steel screws, 2.7 or 3.5 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length. Half of the screw sets were coated with the AD coating before installing in predrilled holes of human cadaveric femoral bone samples. The bone samples were selected from two groups of four persons with mean ages of 34 years (range 25-41 years) and 75 years (range 73-77 years), respectively. The bone mineral density (BMD) values of the samples were determined exactly at the screw insertion site by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). In the mechanical tests, insertion and removal torques were measured. BMD had a significant effect on insertion torque; the maximum torque (adjusted with respect to the screw diameter) was significantly higher for the young bone than for the old bone (p < 0.05). By using a polished AD coating, insertion torque was decreased even up to 50% in comparison with the screws without coating. The results suggest that AD coating provides a stable, smooth surface and reduces the risk of screw failures.
| Effect of C content on the mechanical properties of solution treated as-cast ASTM F-75 alloys
Herrera, M., A. Espinoza, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(7): 607-11.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of solution treated ASTM F-75 alloys with various carbon contents have been studied. Alloys cast under the same conditions were subjected to solution treatment for several periods and then their tensile properties were evaluated. In the as-cast conditions, the alloys exhibited higher strength values with increasing carbon content whereas their ductility was not significantly affected. For the solution treated alloys, the variation of the strength was characterized by a progressive increase for short treatment times until a maximum value was achieved, which was followed by a diminution in this property for longer treatment times. This behavior was more accentuated for the case of the alloys with medium carbon contents, which also exhibited the highest values of strength. Furthermore, the alloy's ductility was enhanced progressively with increasing solution treatment time. This improvement in ductility was significantly higher for the medium carbon alloys compared with the rest of the studied alloys. Thus, high and low carbon contents in solution treated ASTM F-75 alloys did not produced sufficiently high tensile properties.
| Effect of cancellous bone on the functionally graded dental implant concept
Hedia, H. S. (2005), Biomed Mater Eng 15(3): 199-209.
Abstract: In a previous work by the author [H.S. Hedia and M. Nemat-Alla, Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant, submitted to be published in the J. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering], a functionally graded material dental implant was designed without cansellous bone in the model. In this investigation the effect of presence cancellous bone as a thin layer around the dental implant was investigated.It is well known that the main inorganic component of natural bone is hydroxyapatite (HAP) and that the main organic component is collagen (Col). Hydroxyapatite HAP implants are not bioabsorbable, and because induction of bone into and around the artificially made HAP is not always satisfactory, loosening or breakage of HAP implants may occur after implantation in the clinical application. The development of a new material which is bioabsorbable and which has osteoconductive activity is needed. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant, in the presence of cancellous bone as a thin layer around it, from functionally graded material. In this study, a novel biomaterial, collagen/hydroxyapatite (Col/HAP) as a functionally graded material (FGM), was developed using the finite element and optimization techniques which are available in the ANSYS package. These materials have a self-organized character similar to that of natural bone. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the cortical bone and cancellous bone for the Col/HAP functionally graded implant has been reduced by about 40% and 19% respectively compared to currently used titanium dental implants.
| Effect of carbonate substitution on the ultrastructural characteristics of hydroxyapatite implants
Porter, A., N. Patel, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(10): 899-907.
Abstract: Carbonate ion substitution has been shown to be beneficial for increasing the amount of in vivo osseointegration to hydroxyapatite (HA). Nevertheless, mechanisms by which carbonate ions increase in vivo bioactivity are not fully understood. Sintered granules of HA and carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) were implanted for 6 and 12 weeks in an ovine model. Samples containing the bone-implant interface were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TEM was used to compare the in vivo reactivity of sintered granules of HA and CHA. The current findings demonstrated that CHA (1.2 and 2.05 wt.%) is more soluble than pure HA in vivo. More dissolution was observed from the CHA, at the bone-implant interface and within the implant, when compared to pure HA. A less crystalline phase was formed between the 2.05 wt.% CHA and bone at 12 weeks in vivo. Bone surrounding both the pure HA and 1.2 wt.% CHA was relatively disorganised at 12 weeks. In comparison, bone surrounding the 2.05 wt.% CHA was considerably more organised and in many regions collagen fibrils were present. Despite increased quality of bone surrounding 2.05 wt.% CHA, compared to 1.2 wt.% CHA, the amount of dissolution from both materials was similar.
| Effect of cast molded rifampicin/silicone on staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation
Liang, X., A. Wang, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A
Abstract: Infection is one of the most common catheter-related complications, especially in shunt systems used to treat hydrocephalus. Staphylococcus epidermidis is directly related to biomaterial infections owing to its ability to form a biofilm on implanted materials. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to investigate the effect of the antibiotic rifampicin on the colonization and growth of S. epidermidis 35984 on the surface of silicone. A cast molding method was used to load rifampicin into the silicone precursor before it was cured. Bacteria with a diameter of 800-1000 nm and height of 200-500 nm were found to be embedded in the biofilm. Compact multilayer biofilm structures were found on silicone surfaces upon incubation for 4 and 24 h. On the other hand, sparser biofilm structures were observed on rifampicin-loaded surfaces after incubation for the same duration. Deformation of bacteria was observed by AFM. Moreover, different bacterial colony structures on the surfaces of silicone and rifampicin-loaded silicone were observed by AFM and SEM. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2005.
| Effect of cationic size on gelation temperature and properties of gelatin hydrogels
Chatterjee, S. and H. B. Bohidar (2005), Int J Biol Macromol 35(1-2): 81-8.
Abstract: Effect of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ on gel transition temperature (Tg) of gelatin hydrogels (5%, w/v) has been studied by oscillatory rheology in the salt concentration range I = 0.01-0.1 M, which showed increase in Tg with salt concentration with the trend for Tg showing Ca2+ > K+ > Na+. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in the sol state (T>Tg) showed two distinct relaxation modes whereas only a gel mode was observed in the gel state in all the samples which contained significant amount of heterodyne contribution. Low frequency (1.5 rad/s) isochronal storage modulus data revealed the formation of strong gel in presence of CaCl2 compared to that of NaCl and KCl situations. The slow mode relaxation and heterodyne parameter obtained from DLS data indicate the presence of larger clusters in Ca2+ gels.
| Effect of chitosan on the biological properties of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)
Kim, H. J., F. Chen, et al. (2005), J Agric Food Chem 53(9): 3696-701.
Abstract: The effect of the treatment of chitosan at various concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) upon sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) before seeding and transplanting was investigated in aspects of the amount of phenolic and terpenic compounds, antioxidant activity, and growth of the basil, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The total amount of the phenolic and terpenic compounds increased after the chitosan treatment. Especially, the amounts of rosmarinic acid (RA) and eugenol increased 2.5 times and 2 times, respectively, by 0.1% and 0.5% chitosan treatment. Due to the significant induction of phenolic compounds, especially RA, the corresponding antioxidant activity assayed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging test increased at least 3.5-fold. Also, the activity of PAL, a key regulatory enzyme for the phenylpropanoid pathway, increased 32 times by 0.5% chitosan solution. Moreover, after the elicitor chitosan treatment, the growth in terms of the weight and height of the sweet basil significantly increased about 17% and 12%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that an elicitor such as chitosan can effectively induce phytochemicals in plants, which might be another alternative and effective means instead of genetic modification.
| Effect of chitosan on the intranasal absorption of salmon calcitonin in sheep
Hinchcliffe, M., I. Jabbal-Gill, et al. (2005), J Pharm Pharmacol 57(6): 681-7.
Abstract: The effects of a chitosan-based delivery system on the pharmacokinetics of intranasally administered salmon calcitonin (sCT) were investigated in a sheep model. In particular, the feasibility of producing a formulation with a comparable or improved bioavailability and/or less variability than the currently marketed nasal product (Miacalcin nasal spray, Novartis Pharmaceuticals) was assessed. A comparator (control) formulation comprising sCT solution was also tested. Sheep (n=6) were dosed intranasally according to a randomized crossover design. The intranasal sCT dose was 1100 IU (equivalent to approximately 17 IU kg-1). After completion of the nasal dosing legs, five of the sheep received 300 IU sCT (equivalent to approximately 5 IU kg-1) by subcutaneous injection to estimate relative bioavailability. After intranasal or subcutaneous dosing, serial blood samples were taken and plasma separated by centrifugation before measuring sCT concentrations by ELISA. Pharmacokinetic (non-compartmental) and statistical (analysis of variance or non-parametric alternative) analyses were performed. No systemic or local adverse effects were observed following intranasal or subcutaneous administration of sCT. The mean relative bioavailability of sCT from the chitosan solution was improved twofold compared with Miacalcin nasal spray and threefold compared with sCT control solution. Inter-animal variability in sCT absorption appeared to be lower with use of the chitosan-based solution compared with the control solution or commercial product. Based on the reported sheep data, a chitosan delivery system could offer the potential to significantly improve the intranasal absorption of sCT and reduce the variability in absorption. In the clinical setting, this may allow relatively lower doses of the drug to be given intranasally and/or lead to improvements in the efficacy or quality of intranasal therapy.
| Effect of chitosan salts and molecular weight on a nanoparticulate carrier for therapeutic protein
Luangtana-anan, M., P. Opanasopit, et al. (2005), Pharm Dev Technol 10(2): 189-96.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of chitosan salts as a carrier in the preparation of protein-loaded nanoparticles. Glutamic and aspartic acids were used to prepare chitosan salts of 35, 100, and 800 KDa. Nanoparticles of chitosan base, chitosan glutamate, and chitosan aspartate were produced by ionotropic gelation with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied as a model protein at loading concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 2 mg/mL. The size of the nanoparticles, as measured by photon correlation spectroscopy, was in the range of 195 to 3450 nm, depending on type and molecular weight of chitosan. Nanoparticles prepared with higher molecular weight chitosan showed larger sizes. The encapsulation was controlled by the competition of BSA in forming ionic cross-linking with chitosan and by the entrapment of BSA during the gelation process. Higher BSA encapsulation efficiency (EE) was obtained for nanoparticles prepared with chitosan salts compared to those prepared with the base. The higher EE was a result of a higher degree of ionization, causing more active sites to interact with BSA. In addition, a higher and faster release of BSA from the nanoparticles into pH 7.4 buffer medium was observed for nanoparticles of the chitosan salts than was observed for nanoparticles of the chitosan base. The higher and faster release was attributed to higher EE and lower entrapment of BSA within the matrix of the nanoparticle during the gelation process. The influence of molecular weight on the property of nanoparticles exhibited different effects. The difference was a result of different organic acids used to prepare nanoparticles leading to the difference in polymer conformation and viscosity of organic acid solution. Therefore, this study showed that the characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with a protein drug could be readily modulated by changing the salt form or the molecular weight of the chitosan carrier.
| Effect of chlorophyllin-chitosan on excretion of dioxins in a healthy man
Kitamura, K., M. Nagao, et al. (2005), Environ Sci Technol 39(4): 1084-91.
Abstract: We investigated the usefulness of chitosan and chlorophyllin-chitosan (chl-chitosan) administration for reduction of the body burden of environmental dioxins, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/ Fs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), by examining the excretion levels in the feces and sebum of a healthy man. The volunteer ate the same three meals every day during the 40-d experiment, which was composed of five phases (I-V) of 8 d each. In phase I (days 1-8), the volunteer was given only the basal diet. In phases II-V, 0.2 g of chitosan, 0.6 g of chitosan, 0.2 g of chl-chitosan, and 0.6 g of chl-chitosan, respectively, were administered immediately after each meal. We measured daily the amount of dioxins occurring in the feces and sebum during the last 5 d of each phase. The total toxicity equivalency (TEQ) of the dioxin in phases I-V were 27, 26, 38, 36, and 67 pg/d in the feces and 20, 19, 16, 16, and 14 pg/d in the sebum, compared with 74 pg/d in the food. The excretion of dioxins in the feces was significantly increased in phases III, IV, and V, being 140% (p < 0.05), 135% (p < 0.05), and 249% (p < 0.01) of the control level (phase I). Although the dioxin in the sebum was slightly decreased in phase V as compared with the control level, the total amount of excreted dioxin in feces and sebum was increased significantly in phase V, being 174% of the control level, which is almost the same level as that in the food. This indicates that chl-chitosan can prevent accumulation of dioxin, at least at the intake level of normal foods.
| Effect of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid on gene expression in a three-dimensional culture of chondrocytes
Nishimoto, S., M. Takagi, et al. (2005), J Biosci Bioeng 100(1): 123-6.
Abstract: The effect of glycosaminoglycan addition on a three-dimensional (3D) culture of porcine chondrocyte cells was investigated with a view to use in cartilage regenerative medicine. Chondroitin sulfate C increased the mRNA expression of type 2 collagen, while chondroitin sulfate A did not. Hyaluronic acid of high molecular weight markedly decreased the mRNA expression of both aggrecan and type 2 collagen, although hyaluronic acid of low molecular weight showed no apparent effect.
| Effect of cobalt doping on the phase transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles
Barakat, M. A., G. Hayes, et al. (2005), J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5(5): 759-65.
Abstract: Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0.0085, 0.017, 0.0255, 0.034, and 0.085 mol % Co(III) ion dopant were synthesized via sol-gel and dip-coating techniques. The effects of metal ion doping on the transformation of anatase to the rutile phase have been investigated. Several analytical tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were used to investigate the nanoparticle structure, size distribution, and composition. Results obtained revealed that the rutile to anatase concentration ratio increases with increase of the cobalt dopant concentration and annealing temperature. The typical composition of Co-doped TiO2 was Ti(1-x)Co(x)O2, where x values ranged from 0.0085 to 0.085. The activation energy for the phase transformation from anatase to rutile was measured to be 229, 222, 211, and 195 kJ/mole for 0.0085, 0.017, 0.0255, and 0.034 mol % Co in TiO2, respectively.
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