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"Safe" biomaterials
Black, J. (1995), J Biomed Mater Res 29(7): 791-2.

[12th Scientific Congress "Biomaterials in Medicine and Veterinary." October 20-23, 2002, Rytro, Poland]
Pilch, J., W. Scierski, et al. (2003), Otolaryngol Pol 57(2): 317.

[6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
Kim, E. C., J. K. Min, et al. (2005), Biochem Biophys Res Commun 335(2): 300-8.
Abstract: [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor-promoting activities. Here, we describe its novel anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, [6]-gingerol inhibited both the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of human endothelial cells and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. It also blocked capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells in response to VEGF, and strongly inhibited sprouting of endothelial cells in the rat aorta and formation of new blood vessel in the mouse cornea in response to VEGF. Moreover, i.p. administration, without reaching tumor cytotoxic blood levels, to mice receiving i.v. injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, reduced the number of lung metastasis, with preservation of apparently healthy behavior. Taken together, these results demonstrate that [6]-gingerol inhibits angiogenesis and may be useful in the treatment of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

[A comparative analysis of the two approaches to the evaluation of thrombogenic qualities of the biomaterials in vitro]
Egorova, V. A., E. A. Nemets, et al. (2003), Med Tekh(6): 29-32.
Abstract: The paper contains an analysis of thrombogeneticity of biomaterials in vitro with regard for the changing time of recalcification of the platelet-free and platelet-related human blood plasma after incubation with a studied sample. Two sizeless thrombogeneticity parameters are suggested for describing the thrombogeneticity of studied biomaterials irrespective of a incubation-medium composition. It was demonstrated by the example of glass granules, which were modified by various immobilized functional groups, that the measuring of re-calcification time performed after samples' incubation secures a more objective assessment of platelet-resistant properties of materials. The relative index of thrombogeneticity of biomaterials (with the above glass granules being the controls), unlike the standardized parameter, opens up the possibility to study comparatively the activating action exerted on the coagulating and anti-coagulating blood systems of the studied samples, which differ by the ratios of their surface squares to the incubation-medium volume.

[A comparative examination of the hemostatic properties of xenogenic collagenic biomaterials]
Antiszko, M., M. Braczko, et al. (1995), Polim Med 25(3-4): 37-45.
Abstract: The results of haemostatic properties examination of bovine collagen membranes and sponges manufactured in Poland in comparison to Spongostan are presented. In the first step of investigation the experiments were performed using punctured mouse livers. The second step comprised clinical trials in seven patients hospitalised in the Department of Plastic Surgery. The estimated parameter was the time of parenchymal bleeding from punctured livers of from donor places after cutting of the skin for split thickness grafts. The application of tested collagenic membranes or sponges caused effective decreasing of bleeding time. They are potent agents in the cases of abundant capillary bleeding of parenchymal organs and cutaneous tissues. The efficacy of hemostasis initiated by collagen membranes was the same as for Spongostan. The highest haemostatic potency possessed collagenic sponge.

[A comparative study of the dynamics of deep burns healing in using medullary allogenic fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow immobilized on biodegrading membranes or taken from cultural plastic]
Rasulov, M. F., V. I. Sevast'ianov, et al. (2005), Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter(2): 20-3.
Abstract: Transplantation of suspention of allogenic fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) of the bone marrow and AFMSC immobilized on the biodegradable membrane (BM) stimulates healing of deep burn wounds compared to control (without cell transplantation) because these cells produce biologically active substances into the wound. AFMSC immobilized on BM activate repair processes in the wounds earlier. This may be due to their higher functional activity created in the monolayer by adequate intercellular interactions. To avoid complications caused by low diffuse properties of BM (protein precipitation), BM should be removed from the surface of the burn wound maximum 3 days after its application.

[A feasibility study on use of surface and interface properties for evaluating hemocompatibility of carbonaceous biomaterials]
Li, B., A. Kang, et al. (2005), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 22(3): 452-5.
Abstract: In order to evaluate diamond like carbon film (DLC), DLC containing Si, graphite, diamond film (DF), low temperature isotropic carbon film (LTIC) and SiC, we investigated the correlations between surface energy parameters and hemocompatibility indices such as kinetic clotting time, hemolysis and platelet consumption. An analysis of T-type correlation degree in the Grey system theory was performed. The results showed: (1) all of correlation degrees between kinetic clotting time and polar surface energy parameters were positive, but for critical surface tension, the correlation degree was negative; among five of surface energy parameters, interface tension had the highest relation degree (0.63) with kinetic clotting time, and critical surface tension (-0.43) took the second place; (2) on the contrary, all of correlation degrees between hemolysis and polar surface energy parameters were negative, but for critical surface tension, the correlation degree was positive; and that which had closer correlations with hemolysis were still interface tension (-0.43) and critical surface tension (0.29); (3) critical surface tension had the highest relation degree (0.68) with platelet consumption, and surface tension (0.32) took the second place; (4) kinetic clotting time possessed higher negative correlation degrees with hemolysis (-0.57) and platelet consumption (-0.36). These data indicate that kinetic clotting time depended on a balance between the polarity of surface and the limited humidifying of water on the surface, and that platelet consumption was based on good humidification and power polarity of surface, while hemolysis was promoted by the aid of chromatic dispersion action stemming from the surface and fully humidifying of water on the surface. There was "seesaw effect" between kinetic clotting time and hemolysis or platelet consumption, hence the hemocompatibility of carbonaceous biomaterials could be equivalently evaluated by using kinetic clotting time as an index. It has been confirmed: (1) successive occurrences, including adhesion, deformation and collection of platelets on the material surfaces as results of protein adsorption, are the major mechanism of blood coagulation of carbonaceous materials; (2) the hemocompatibility of carbonaceous biomaterials can be evaluated by using critical surface tension as an index. These findings may underpin the hemocompatibility evaluation of carbonaceous biomaterials based on surface properties.

[A method for the standardized in vitro testing of biomaterials with bacterial cultures]
Schubert, R., M. Mehl, et al. (1989), Z Exp Chir Transplant Kunstliche Organe 22(2): 66-73.
Abstract: The preclinical investigation of potential biomaterials requires a comprehensive profile of biological parameters. In the present paper a new in vitro test will be described which allows a standardized testing of the effect of biomaterials on the proliferation of bacteria. For this test eluates of solid materials, granulates or powders of potential biomaterials were prepared. These eluates were mixed a bacterial culture containing a definite number of microbes and incubated for 4-20 hours at 37 degrees C. The effect on bacterial growth was determined photometrically.

[A new biomaterial in surgery of ptosis with frontalis suspension: wide pore PTFE]
Ruban, J. M., M. Mallem, et al. (1995), J Fr Ophtalmol 18(3): 207-19.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In brow suspension, there is agreement that fresh tissue (autogenous fascia lata or temporalis fascia) provides the best results in terms of low complications and duration of the effect. Yet, the morbidity of fresh tissue harvesting is not negligible. Many alternative materials have disadvantages in terms of duration of the procedure and side effects. METHODS: We have used a new material: wide porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (eP.T.F.E.). This material is an inert vitreous teflon alloplast with a high biocompatibility. It is close to Gore-Tex, but differs from it by a higher porosity (over 90%) and wider diameter of its pores (over 50 mus). We performed a series of 60 brow suspension from February 1992 to March 1994, using this new material. RESULTS: We did not encounter any significant complications due to the material and in circumstance, we did not deplore any migration, infection or extrusion of the ePTFE. The biocompatibility seems to be increased, as it has been demonstrated by light and electron microscopy of the implanted material who revealed that fibrovascular ingrowth was significantly achieve two months after surgery. CONCLUSION: The first results of this series are very encouraging. They can favourably be compared with the results of other series using different types of materials available in brow suspension. Though our longest follow-up is 30 months, further study is necessary to evaluate the long term results and eventual long term side effects of ePTFE, which avoid harvesting fresh tissues, thus reducing the brow suspension procedure's morbidity.

[A new osteoblast cell culture system for standardized testing of biomaterials]
Hendrich, C., M. Geyer, et al. (1996), Biomed Tech (Berl) 41(10): 278-83.
Abstract: For in vitro testing of new biomaterials cultured fibroblasts are employed. In the case of the agar diffusion test survival of cells is involved in the presence of the material to be tested. Further statements on the biological effects of a biomaterial require the use of cell cultures adapted to the tissue concerned and the underlying problem being investigated. In the present study, an osteoblast cell culture system with which implant surfaces in contact with bone can be tested as required by the relevant standards is described. Test bodies made of titanium, polystyrene or copper were used in the conventional agar diffusion test, and were also overgrown with fibroblasts or a cell line of foetal human osteoblasts. For the agar diffusion test, the test criterion was the extent of the inhibition area on staining with neutral red, while for the overgrowth, the mean cell diameter and the number of cells was employed. The phenotype of the osteoblast cell line was determined immunohistochemically by means of alkaline phosphatase or immunohistologically by means of collagen I and osteocalcin. Calcification was demonstrated using the v. Kossa stain. In the case of the osteoblasts, a differentiation of a collagen I and alkaline phosphatase-positive phenotype over an osteocalcin-positive phenotype to an increase in calcium deposition was shown. As in the case of the agar diffusion test, direct overgrowth also revealed no cytotoxic effect for titanium and polystyrene. In contrast, a cytotoxic effect consisting in a decrease in the number of cells and also a left shift in the size distribution was observed for copper. The standard deviations of the individual tests were less for overgrowth than for the agar diffusion test. The culture system for osteoblast cells thus meets the criteria of the EN/DIN 30993-5 in terms of the quality and accuracy of the results obtained. In addition to excluding direct cytotoxicity, this test system offers a new possibility of examining the influence of the material on cell growth. Consequently, it permits a repeatable examination of proliferation and differentiation of the osteoblasts on each material surface.

[A recent review--biomaterials in the jaws]
Shibata, K. (1978), Gifu Shika Gakkai Zasshi 6(2): 61-9.

[A review of literature concerned with biomaterials in the jaws]
Shibata, K. (1978), Gifu Shika Gakkai Zasshi 6(2): 47-60.

[A simplified technique for repair of quadriceps tendon rupture by transpatellar PDS-cord]
Hosseini, H., J. D. Agneskirchner, et al. (2005), Orthopade 34(6): 550-5.
Abstract: Quadriceps tendon ruptures are relatively unusual injuries caused by direct or more frequently indirect trauma. Since complete ruptures lead to loss of active extension of the knee joint, operative treatment is usually indicated. Several techniques are described in the literature. However, relatively little is known about the functional outcome after operative treatment of acute quadriceps tendon ruptures. We present a new operative technique using a 1.3-mm PDS cord passed through a transverse drill hole in the proximal pole of the patella. We operated ten consecutive cases of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures with the technique described between January 2000 and June 2003. Eight of ten patients were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 38 months by physical examination, IKDC Subjective score, Lysholm and Tegner score as well as an isokinetic test of the quadriceps strength. No complications were noted in this period. The average postoperative scores were 87 (IKDC), 98 (Lysholm), and 4.5 (Tegner). Isokinetic testing showed an average of 25% quadriceps strength deficit. The operative treatment of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures using a PDS cord through a drill hole in the patella is a safe and effective technique permitting functional postoperative treatment.

[A study of the uranium content of various human organs and biomaterials]
Novikov Iu, V. and L. N. Abramova (1969), Gig Sanit 34(9): 71-4.

[A system for biomaterial handling and sample pretreatment in conditions of weightlessness]
Noskov, V. B., V. I. Kozharinov, et al. (2002), Aviakosm Ekolog Med 36(3): 58-61.
Abstract: To perform laboratory biochemical, immunologic and microbiological analyses and special pretreatment and stabilization of biosamples immediately on the space station, system Plasma-03 was designed and manufactured and associated procedure for sample collection and pretreatment was developed. Main elements of the system are a refrigerator/thermostat, centrifuge and returnable container, and a set of accessories and expendables. The system meets the requirements to the equipment to be employed in crew health monitoring and biochemical experiments on board the International space station.

[Abdominal wall hernia surgery: prosthetic materials]
Celi, D., A. Cucinotta, et al. (2005), Chir Ital 57(2): 207-10.
Abstract: Treatment of abdominal hernia has been revolutionised by using new prostheses. Reduction of tissue tension, elimination of wall defects and lowering of recurrences are the key aspects of the success of these devices. In Italy, prostheses are widely used. Marketing enquires show percentages of prosthesis use of over 80% for the treatment of primitive hernias and as much as 100% for recurrences. It is strongly recommended that randomised prospective studies be carried out in order to establish the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques. Moreover, an international classification should be considered so that all surgeons can use the same language and compare their results.

[Absorbable self-reinforced biomaterials used for fracture fixation implants]
Chen, C., K. Sun, et al. (1998), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 15(1): 79-83.
Abstract: A series of absorbable polymers used for osteosynthesis implants are introduced in this review. To reduce the degradation rate and increase the strength of them, some methods, such as self-reinforced or coating with other polymers, have been presented. Some clinical and animal's experiments have been discussed.

[Adhesion dependence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to biomaterials and PIA polysaccharide synthesis on icaADBC operon presence]
Bartoszewicz, M., J. Nowicka, et al. (2004), Med Dosw Mikrobiol 56(3): 225-30.
Abstract: Both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus are important causes of infections associated with catheters and other medical devices. This infections result in significant morbidity, mortality and economic cost. It has recently been shown that not only S. epidermidis but also S. haemolyticus can produce slime and carries the ica operon responsible for and slime production. In the operon, coexpression of icaA and icaD is required for full slime synthesis. This study is focused on detecting icaA and icaD genes in S. haemolyticus and comparison of these two species. It turned out that strain representatives within the same species behave very differently and a single tested strain from each species is unlikely to be representative of the species as a whole. Contrary to S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus strain appeared to carry no icaA-like and icaD-like genes, but was able to form biofilm in vitro.

[Adhesive proteins and endothelialization of biomaterials]
Wei, S. and Y. Shi (1997), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 14(2): 148-51 back cover.

[Advance in research of osteoblast adhesion to bioactive materials]
Niu, X., Y. Luo, et al. (2005), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 22(4): 848-52.
Abstract: In the research field of bone tissue engineering, the interaction of osteoblast and substrate is pivotal and the adhesion of osteoblast to biomaterials is the basic condition. Firstly, osteoblast must adhere to biomaterials, then it can migrate, proliferate and differentiate. This paper introduces the proteins relating to the adhesion of osteoblast and the influences of relating surface character and modification of biomaterials on the adhesion ability of osteoblast. These could serve as basic data and useful reference for the development of bone tissue engineering and tissue engineering scaffold materials.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006