|Articles about Biomaterials|
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| Biomaterials in ossiculoplasty and history of development of prostheses for ossiculoplasty
Treace, H. T. (1994), Otolaryngol Clin North Am 27(4): 655-62.
Abstract: From 1956 to the present has been a period of surgical expansion into the middle ear for correction of deafness. This article follows the evolution of microscopic implants designed to replace all or part of the ossicular chain, and the use of biocompatible materials of plastic, metal, and ceramics to form prosthetic devices.
| Biomaterials in periodontal regenerative surgery: effects of cryopreserved bone, commercially available coral, demineralized freeze-dried dentin, and cementum on periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts
Devecioglu, D., T. F. Tozum, et al. (2004), J Biomater Appl 19(2): 107-20.
Abstract: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to achieve successful periodontal regeneration. The effects of different biomaterials, allogenic and alloplastic, used in periodontal surgeries to achieve regeneration have been studied in vitro on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. The materials tested included cryopreserved bone allograft (CBA), coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), demineralized freeze-dried dentin (DFDD), and cementum. CBA and CH revealed an increase in initial PDL cell attachment, whereas CH resulted in an increase in long-term PDL cell attachment. Mineral-like nodule formation was observed significantly higher in DFDD compared to other materials tested for osteoblasts. Based on the results of this in vitro study, we conclude that the materials used are all biocompatible with human PDL cells and osteoblasts, which have pivotal importance in periodontal regeneration.
| Biomaterials in peripheral vascular surgery
Rocko, J. M. and K. G. Swan (1981), Biomaterials 2(3): 177-8.
| Biomaterials in reconstructive head and neck surgery
Griffiths, M. V. (1979), Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 4(5): 363-76.
| Biomaterials in reparative medicine: biorelevant structure-property analysis
Yip, C. (2002), Ann N Y Acad Sci 961: 109-11.
| Biomaterials in rhinoplasty
Vuyk, H. D. and P. A. Adamson (1998), Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 23(3): 209-17.
| Biomaterials in spinal fixation. An experimental animal study to improve the performance
Rocca, M., M. Fini, et al. (2000), Int J Artif Organs 23(12): 824-30.
Abstract: Different pedicle screws were biomechanically and morphologically studied and compared through the use of an animal model to determine their efficacy and resistance in spinal fixation. The principal objective was to compare biomechanical and histomorphological aspects of HA-coated screws to uncoated ones. Fourty-eight cylindrical transpedicular self-tapping screws divided into three groups of sixteen each were employed; Group A: stainless steel screws; Group B: titanium screws; Group C: HA-coated titanium screws. The screws were implanted bilaterally and randomly into the L3, L4, and L5 pedicles of eight adult mongrel sheep. The final insertion torque was measured in all the implants. After one and four months, upon euthanization, four samples per group were extracted from the surrounding bone and the screw extraction torque was measured. The remaining samples were examined and processed for histological and histomorphological evaluations. No differences were observed at one month among the extraction torque of the three groups. After four months the only significance between insertion and extraction values was for the HA group, i.e. p=0.001. Comparing the extraction torque values of the three groups after four months of healing, the HA-coated group showed a greater than twofold increase (p<0.0005). No differences were observed at one month among the percentages of bone-implant contact in the three groups. After four months the percentage was significant only for the C group (p<0.0005). At four months a correlation was found between the morphological and the biomechanical data of group C (p<0.0005). The use of hydroxyapatite-coated screws could act as an effective method to improve the bone-implant interface, thus obtaining a strong fixation of the implant independently of the arthrodesis achieved with bone graft.
| Biomaterials in the 21st century revisited!
Katz, J. L. (1998), J Rehabil Res Dev 35(2): ix-xi.
| Biomaterials in the 21st century?
Katz, J. L. (1995), J Rehabil Res Dev 32(3): vii-viii.
| Biomaterials in the development and future of vascular grafts
Xue, L. and H. P. Greisler (2003), J Vasc Surg 37(2): 472-80.
Abstract: Recent developments in the field of tissue engineering have re-invigorated the quest for more suitable biomaterials that are applicable to novel cardiovascular devices, including small-diameter vascular grafts. This review covers both commercially available and relevant newly developed experimental materials, including elastic polymers (polyurethane), the biodegradable and bioresorbable materials, and the naturally occurring materials, focusing on their potential applications in the development of future vascular substitutes.
| Biomaterials in the face: benefits and risks
Gosain, A. K. and J. A. Persing (1999), J Craniofac Surg 10(5): 404-14.
Abstract: An extensive review of biomaterials in the face was conducted in an American Society of Maxillo-facial Surgeons-sponsored biomaterials symposium. The symposium was held in Boston, MA, immediately preceding the 1998 annual meeting of the ASPRS/PSEF. The scope of the symposium extended from current reconstructive techniques for the facial skeleton, including autogenous bone and biomaterials, to potential application of new techniques in molecular biology that may enable the body's own tissues to be engineered to provide bone and cartilage to reconstruct the facial skeleton. The authors review the presentations and relevant literature on biomaterials in the face. The following topics are reviewed: current reconstructive techniques using autogenous bone grafts, methyl methacrylate cranioplasty, demineralized bone, and hydroxyapatite; biomaterials used for rigid fixation, including metallic and bioabsorbable implants; biomaterials used for facial augmentation, including porous polyethylene, hard-tissue replacement, and ceramic biomaterials; biofilm, or a layered polysaccharide matrix secreted by bacteria on the surface of implants; and potential means of inducing bone formation by directing the body's own tissues through cytokine interaction, gene transfer, and tissue engineering.
| Biomaterials in tissue engineering
Hubbell, J. A. (1995), Biotechnology (N Y) 13(6): 565-76.
Abstract: Biomaterials play a pivotal role in field of tissue engineering. Biomimetic synthetic polymers have been created to elicit specific cellular functions and to direct cell-cell interactions both in implants that are initially cell-free, which may serve as matrices to conduct tissue regeneration, and in implants to support cell transplantation. Biomimetic approaches have been based on polymers endowed with bioadhesive receptor-binding peptides and mono- and oligosaccharides. These materials have been patterned in two- and three-dimensions to generate model multicellular tissue architectures, and this approach may be useful in future efforts to generate complex organizations of multiple cell types. Natural polymers have also played an important role in these efforts, and recombinant polymers that combine the beneficial aspects of natural polymers with many of the desirable features of synthetic polymers have been designed and produced. Biomaterials have been employed to conduct and accelerate otherwise naturally occurring phenomena, such as tissue regeneration in wound healing in the otherwise healthy subject; to induce cellular responses that might not be normally present, such as healing in a diseased subject or the generation of a new vascular bed to receive a subsequent cell transplant; and to block natural phenomena, such as the immune rejection of cell transplants from other species or the transmission of growth factor signals that stimulate scar formation. This review introduces the biomaterials and describes their application in the engineering of new tissues and the manipulation of tissue responses.
| Biomaterials in total joint replacement
Katti, K. S. (2004), Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 39(3): 133-42.
Abstract: The current state of materials systems used in total hip replacement is presented in this paper. An overview of the various material systems used in total hip replacement reported in literature is presented in this paper. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composites are used in the design of the different components of hip replacement implants. The merits and demerits of these material systems are evaluated in the context of mechanical properties most suitable for total joint replacement such as a hip implant. Current research on advanced polymeric nanocomposites and biomimetic composites as novel materials systems for bone replacement is also discussed. This paper examines the current research in the materials science and the critical issues and challenges in these materials systems that require further research before application in biomedical industry.
| Biomaterials in urology
Beiko, D. T., B. E. Knudsen, et al. (2003), Curr Urol Rep 4(1): 51-5.
Abstract: Biomaterials such as urethral catheters, urethral stents, and ureteral stents are commonly used in patients with urologic disorders. There are currently many different bulk materials and coatings available for the manufacture of urinary tract biomaterials; however, the ideal material has yet to be discovered. Any potential biomaterial must undergo rigorous physical and biocompatibility testing before commercialization and use in humans. Despite significant advances in basic science research involving biocompatibility issues and biofilm formation, infection and encrustation remain associated with the use of biomaterials in the urinary tract, and therefore, limit their long-term use. This review critically evaluates the literature published over the past 12 months, providing an update on the current status of naturally derived and synthetic polymeric biomaterial use in the urinary tract. We focus on urethral catheters, urethral stents, and ureteral stents. We discuss issues of biocompatibility and new approaches to biocompatibility testing, biomaterials currently available for use, new biomaterials and coatings, and novel ureteral stent designs. Finally, we discuss the future of biomaterial use in the urinary tract.
| Biomaterials in Urology II: future usage and management
Reid, G., K. Millsap, et al. (1999), J Endourol 13(1): 1-7.
Abstract: It seems likely, and indeed inevitable, that medical device usage will continue its rapid increase over the next 10 to 20 years and beyond. For surgeons, these new inventions will come in many forms but should take into account biocompatibility and resistance to encrustations and to microorganisms. This review focuses on research under way at present in vitro and in vivo on materials and coatings, use of bioelectrics, use of artificial organs and tissues, application of indigenous bacteria, and other alternative device management techniques, which could well become part of clinical practice in the future. By necessity, some of these citations are speculative, but supporting documentation for their inclusion is presented.
| Biomaterials integrated with electronic elements: en route to bioelectronics
Willner, I. and B. Willner (2001), Trends Biotechnol 19(6): 222-30.
Abstract: Bioelectronics is a progressing interdisciplinary research field that involves the integration of biomaterials with electronic transducers, such as electrodes, field-effect-transistors or piezoelectric crystals. Surface engineering of biomaterials, such as enzymes, antigen-antibodies or DNA on the electronic supports, controls the electrical properties of the biomaterial-transducer interface and enables the electronic transduction of biorecognition events, or biocatalyzed transformation, on the transducers. Bioelectronic sensing devices, biosensors of tailored sensitivities and specificities, are being developed.
| Biomaterials lubricated for minimum frictional resistance
Tomita, N., S. Tamai, et al. (1994), J Appl Biomater 5(2): 175-81.
Abstract: To improve the frictional characteristics of a biomaterial, the mechanical performance of a lubricated surface was studied. In vitro friction tests showed that the coefficient of dynamic friction of the lubricated surface was about 0.01 against rabbit bladder and the coefficient of static friction increased with the preload period. The efficacy of a lubricated cystoscope was evaluated by an in vivo test simulating cystoscope operation. The maximal and the total resistance force on the cystoscope model were found to decrease with the surface lubrication. Histological study revealed that urethral damage caused by rubbing with the cystoscope model was reduced by this lubrication technique. Presumably, prolonged retention of water on the lubricated surface region prevented tissue adhesion to the foreign material.
| Biomaterials research in Malaysia--development in facilities and expertise for in-vivo evaluation
Khalid, K. (2004), Med J Malaysia 59 Suppl B: 133-4.
| Biomaterials research in neural prostheses
Hambrecht, F. T. (1982), Biomaterials 3(3): 187-8.
| Biomaterials research in the '80s: a restorative perspective
Donovan, T. E. (1984), Cda J 12(12): 13-7.
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