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Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary
Christenson, L., A. G. Mikos, et al. (1997), Tissue Eng 3(1): 71-3; discussion 73-6.

Biomaterials for use in frontal sinus obliteration
D'Addario, M., R. H. Haug, et al. (2004), J Long Term Eff Med Implants 14(6): 455-65.
Abstract: Although fractures of the frontal sinus are infrequent (2-15% of victims of facial trauma), because of their proximity to the brain and eyes, the consequences of their management may have a significant impact on the patient. For frontal sinus injuries that affect the nasofrontal ducts or posterior wall, obliteration is indicated. Although frontal sinus surgery has been documented since 1750, a consensus as to the best material for obliteration has not been achieved. The particular autogenous and alloplastic materials for use in frontal sinus obliteration will be the focus of this review, with particular attention paid to assessing their physical properties, advantages, disadvantages, and complications. While numerous new alloplastic materials show promise for frontal sinus obliteration, autogenous fat remains the most popular and most frequently used material with the longest history of use, and it is versatile and reliable.

Biomaterials functionalization using a novel peptide that selectively binds to a conducting polymer
Sanghvi, A. B., K. P. Miller, et al. (2005), Nat Mater 4(6): 496-502.
Abstract: The goal in biomaterial surface modification is to retain a material's bulk properties while modifying only its surface to possess desired recognition and specificity. Here we develop a unique strategy for surface functionalization of an electrically conductive polymer, chlorine-doped polypyrrole (PPyCl), which has been widely researched for various electronic and biomedical applications. An M13 bacteriophage library was used to screen 10(9) different 12-mer peptide inserts against PPyCl. A binding phage (phiT59) was isolated, and its binding stability and specificity to PPyCl was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and titer count analysis. The relative binding strength and mechanism of the corresponding 12-mer peptide and its variants was studied using atomic force microscopy and fluorescamine assays. Further, the T59 peptide was joined to a cell adhesive sequence and used to promote cell attachment on PPyCl. This strategy can be extended to immobilize a variety of molecules to PPyCl for numerous applications. In addition, phage display can be applied to other polymers to develop bioactive materials without altering their bulk properties.

Biomaterials in Canada: the first four decades
Brash, J. L. (2005), Biomaterials 26(35): 7209-20.
Abstract: Biomaterials research in Canada began in the 1960s. Over the past four decades significant contributions have been made across a broad spectrum covering dental, orthopaedic, cardiovascular, neuro, and ocular biomaterials. Canadians have also been active in the derivative area of tissue engineering. Biomaterials laboratories are now established in universities and research institutes from coast to coast, supported mainly by funding from the Federal and Provincial Governments. The Canadian Biomaterials Society was formed in 1971 and has played an important role in the development of the field. The Society played host to the 5th World Biomaterials Congress in Toronto in 1996. The work of Canadian researchers over the past four decades is summarized briefly. It is concluded that biomaterials and tissue engineering is a mature, strong area of research in Canada and appears set to continue as such into the future.

Biomaterials in cardiopulmonary bypass
Courtney, J. M., S. Sundaram, et al. (1994), Perfusion 9(1): 3-10.
Abstract: The improved utilization of biomaterials in cardiopulmonary bypass is dependent on polymer science and technology, procedures for blood compatibility assessment, optimization of biomaterial/antithrombotic agent combinations and the interpretation of clinical data.

Biomaterials in cardiopulmonary bypass
Courtney, J. M., X. Zhao, et al. (1999), Perfusion 14(4): 263-7.

Biomaterials in clinical use
Braley, S. A. (1974), Biomater Med Devices Artif Organs 2(3): 225-34.

Biomaterials in craniofacial reconstruction
Cho, Y. R. and A. K. Gosain (2004), Clin Plast Surg 31(3): 377-85, v.
Abstract: Biomaterials have become an integral component of craniofacial reconstruction. Their increasing ease of use, long "shelf-life," and safety enables them to be used effectively and play an important role in reducing operating times. There are various biomaterials currently available and specific usages have been characterized well in the literature.This article reviews different biomaterials that can be used in craniofacial reconstruction,including autogenous bone, methyl methacrylate and hard tissue replacement,hydroxyapatite, porous polyethylene, bioactive glass, and demineralized bone.

Biomaterials in dentistry
Smith, D. C. (1975), J Dent Res 54 Spec No B: B146-52.

Biomaterials in drug delivery and tissue engineering: one laboratory's experience
Langer, R. (2000), Acc Chem Res 33(2): 94-101.
Abstract: This Account reviews our laboratory's research in biomaterials. In one area, drug delivery, we discuss the development of materials that are capable of releasing macromolecules such as proteins and peptides, intelligent delivery systems based on magnetism or microchip technology, new degradable materials such as polyanhydrides, and noninvasive approaches for delivering molecules through the skin and lungs. A second area, tissue engineering, is also discussed. New polymer systems for creating cartilage, blood vessels, nerves, and other tissues are examined.

Biomaterials in foot surgery
Frisch, E. E. (1984), Clin Podiatry 1(1): 11-27.
Abstract: Implants have become an important part of the foot surgeon's armamentarium. They have facilitated or improved the results in many reconstructive procedures. Understanding the concepts, applications, and characteristics of the various implants and biomaterials is important to providing maximal benefits to patients.

Biomaterials in functional reconstruction
Desgrandchamps, F. (2000), Curr Opin Urol 10(3): 201-6.
Abstract: Recent initiatives in the development of biomaterials for functional reconstruction involve the alloplasts, the biological and the bioengineered biomaterials. Anti-infective alloplastic biomaterials (Foley catheters coated with rifampicin/minocycline bonded to silicone or ciprofloxacin liposome-containing hydrogel) allow a reduction in the rate of bacterial contamination, but the risk of future bacterial resistance is a matter for concern. New generations of biologic collagen-based tissue-matrix grafts are derived from bladder (bladder acellular matrix graft and bladder submucosa collagen matrix), ureter or small intestine (subintestinal submucosa). There are high hopes that these materials may have applications in augmentation cystoplasty. Using tissue engineering (autologous cells expanded in vitro and grafted onto biodegradable matrix), biocompatible malleable penile prostheses have been obtained experimentally. Most of the results obtained with these new biomaterials are exclusively experimental, but they offer great hope for future functional reconstruction of the urinary tract.

Biomaterials in laryngotracheal surgery: a solvable problem in the near future?
Debry, C., P. Schultz, et al. (2003), J Laryngol Otol 117(2): 113-7.
Abstract: Clinical success of laryngotracheal protheses are constrained by a combination of biocompatible response in the host and a suitable functional rehabilitation. This review considers clinical limits of different materials commonly used in ear, nose and throat surgery and will more particularly focus on titanium, one material recognized to be well tolerated in implantology.

Biomaterials in medical devices
Bruck, S. D. (1972), Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18(0): 1-9.

Biomaterials in medicine--a bioengineering perspective
Courtney, J. M., L. Irvine, et al. (1993), Int J Artif Organs 16(3): 164-71.
Abstract: Biomaterials are considered with an emphasis on those used in artificial organs. Attention is drawn to the importance of the polymeric biomaterials and factors which affect their properties. Functions of membranes, sorbents, blood tubing, ventricular diaphragms and cell culture substrates are examined in order to obtain a summary of fundamental properties. Observations are made on the importance of blood compatibility assessment and its association with a biomaterial structure-property relationship. Blood-biomaterial interactions are discussed in terms of an overall relationship between the three components--blood, biomaterial and antithrombotic agent, with examples given of factors influencing each component. Cell-biomaterial interactions are examined in the areas of toxicity evaluation and the promotion of cell attachment and growth, where an overall relationship is described for the cell, growth medium and growth factors, and the biomaterial acting as a substrate.

Biomaterials in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
Karesh, J. W. (1998), Curr Opin Ophthalmol 9(5): 66-74.
Abstract: Over the past several years, new biomaterials have been developed or modified for use in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. Hydroxyapatite and high-density porous polyethylene are extensively utilized in enucleation and evisceration surgery as well as in orbit reconstruction. Absorbable plates and screws as well as cyanoacrylate glue are at the forefront of fracture repair. Silicone and polytetrafluoroethylene eyelid implants are important adjuncts for adult and congenital ptosis repair. As technology advances, new materials will be developed and new applications identified. An understanding of biomaterials and their use is essential for every oculoplastic surgeon.

Biomaterials in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology
Yetkin, H. and A. Senkoylu (2002), Technol Health Care 10(3-4): 173-5.

Biomaterials in orthopaedic surgery: effects of different hydroxyapatites and demineralized bone matrix on proliferation rate and bone matrix synthesis by human osteoblasts
Zambonin, G. and M. Grano (1995), Biomaterials 16(5): 397-402.
Abstract: The effects of different biomaterials, used in orthopaedic surgery for bone substitution and/or prosthesis coating to improve fixation and durability of prosthetic implants, have been studied in vitro on cell growth and bone matrix synthesis by human osteoblasts. The materials were a bovine collagen matrix (Osteovit, B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) and two hydroxyapatite (Ceros 80, Robert Mathys Co, Instrumentenfabrik Bettlach, Germany and Ostilit, Howmedica International, Staines House, UK). Cell proliferation and bone matrix synthesis were assessed by incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline, respectively. Cell viability in the presence of the materials was also morphologically controlled using phase-contrast microscopy. Exposure to Osteovit caused increased proliferation of human osteoblasts, whereas both Ostilit and Ceros 80 induced a decreased cell growth. Osteoblast bone matrix synthesis was increased by all the materials tested.

Biomaterials in orthopedic surgery
Cohen, J. (1967), Am J Surg 114(1): 31-41.

Biomaterials in orthopedic surgery: effects of a nickel-reduced stainless steel on in vitro proliferation and activation of human osteoblasts
Torricelli, P., M. Fini, et al. (2003), Int J Artif Organs 26(10): 952-7.
Abstract: A new austenitic stainless steel compound, P558, has been widely recognized to have good mechanical properties, excellent potential for corrosion resistance and negligible nickel ion release, making it a promising substitute for more expensive metallic prostheses with limited machinable features. The effect of P558 was studied in vitro and human osteoblast- like cells (MG63) were cultured directly on P558, Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti), and polystyrene (Control) for 72 hours. Osteoblast functions were evaluated by assaying cell proliferation and synthetic activity after 1.25(OH)2D3 stimulation. Results demonstrated that growth of MG63 on P558 was not negatively affected when compared to the Ti and Control groups and showed no alteration in the production of ALP, NO and PICP. Moreover, IL-6 was lower, whereas OC and TGFbeta1 were significantly higher. SEM images revealed that cells proliferated and differentiated on P558 without any alteration in their morphology. The current findings have demonstrated that P558 promotes osteoblast proliferation, activation and differentiation without negative effects and, thus, its good biocompatibility when used for orthopedic application.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006