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[Biomaterials and orthopedic prostheses]
Gatti, A. M. (1979), Chir Organi Mov 65(3): 351-6.

[Biomaterials and osseous regeneration]
Duguy, N., H. Petite, et al. (2000), Ann Chir Plast Esthet 45(3): 364-76.
Abstract: The autologous bone graft is commonly used for the repair of bony defects, but its resorption is unpredictable, and there is an inherent morbidity of the donor site. There is a wide range of biomaterials that could be used as bone substitutes, depending on their bioactivity. Among bioactive materials, bioglasses present a linkage between their reactive surface and the adjacent bone although they cannot be colonized by bony ingrowth, moreover their fragility and resorption as particles limit their use. The osteoconductive biomaterials are either represented by the synthetized ceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) or tricalcium phosphate (TCP), or either natural coral and the derived biomaterials of bony matrix. Coral exoskeleton or TCP are highly resorbable, but pure HA is only slightly. Bony ingrowth in osteoconductive materials is limited to the periphery of the implant which does not make it suitable for the repair of large defects. Research is focused on the adjunction of a biologically active substance to the osteoconductive matrix in order to enhance bony ingrowth. Osteoinductive materials such as bone growth factors in combination with a carrier can promote bone healing, especially when bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is used. Nevertheless, even if their efficacy is demonstrated, their inocuity has not been totally confirmed. Furthermore, the dose used are far superior than in the physiological pathways. Hybrid biomaterials combine an osteoconductive carrier with bone marrow cells. Bone cell cultures could amplify to almost any extent the number of osteogenic cells for such a biomaterial. Bone substitutes will certainly be used in the future to repair bony defects.

[Biomaterials and public health: avoid the drift]
Muster, D. and E. Le Borgne (1997), Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac 98 Suppl 1: 50-5.
Abstract: The difficulties found in the maturation of the Science of Biomaterials are analysed at the different levels: research, education, industry, reglementary and legislative environment, needs of hospitals and private practices. Proposals are made for a better response to the needs of an area which should have a growth at least as important as that of drugs.

[Biomaterials and the living system]
Sedel, L., H. Petite, et al. (1999), Bull Acad Natl Med 183(3): 541-51; discussion 552-4.
Abstract: Biomaterials, whatever their applications: cardiovascular surgery, orthopaedic surgery, ophthalmology, plastic surgery, urology, membranes for renal dialysis have some common approach. It is a very interdisciplinary field that needs intervening bioengineers, M.D, biologists and materials scientists. It is a domain with special emphasis on responsability because of the very severe consequence of these material failures. After an overview of these materials and their applications, we will briefly present here the evaluation systems of these biomaterials, including laboratory tests, mechanical tests as well as biological ones. Then we will project in the future to insist on three main orientations: tissue engineering, optimised materials for some precise function and also how new techniques of applied genetic could modify this field in deep in the future.

[Biomaterials and their application to implantation]
Osborn, J. F. (1979), SSO Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd 89(11): 1138-9.

[Biomaterials and their definition]
Korbelar, P. (1988), Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech 55(5): 445-8.

[Biomaterials and tissues material in the treatment of prosthetic grafts infections]
Pupka, A., A. Abrahamow, et al. (2005), Polim Med 35(2): 41-7.
Abstract: An article is presented the treatment of vascular prosthetic grafts infections. An the graft infection treated by the replacement of infected prosthesis with autogenic venous material or with venous and arterial allograft harvested from brain-dead organ donors together with multiple organ procurement is presented. Autogenous material has an ability a better healing in infected tissues and used with absorbable sutures may lead to complete recovery from vascular graft infection - a severe and often lethal complication. An article is presented the treatment of vascular prosthetic grafts infections with the use of more resistant prostheses of infection - silver coated prosthesis, prosthesis with antibiotic and politetrafluoroethylene prostheses.

[Biomaterials based on collagen]
Vizarova, K., M. Rehakova, et al. (1993), Bratisl Lek Listy 94(12): 633-7.
Abstract: The review deals with collagen which is an essential natural polymer for preparing of biomaterials used in different fields of medicine. Besides discussing the structure of the basic polymer, the antigenicity of collagen materials as well as the bioactive properties of the collagen implants are described. The substantial part of the paper is oriented to the bioengineering processes of the preparation of the collagen matrix and composite structures. For these the physical and chemical modification of collagen are used. The processes of the modification are shown to be important in the fixing of the structure, improving the mechanical properties and influencing and directing the resorption of collagen materials in organism. Two types of materials are subdued to a detailed discussion. One which is combined with glycosoaminoglycanes and serves as the temporary skin cover and the second type, the structure of which, in the combination with hydroxylapatite imitates bone. (Tab. 4, Ref. 22.)

[Biomaterials essential to regenerative medicine]
Imachi, K. (2003), Nippon Rinsho 61(3): 417-20.
Abstract: Biomaterial is one of the most important factors to be developed in regenerative medicine. In this paper, the biomaterials essential to regenerative medicine were described. Biomaterials in regenerative medicine are classified into 5 categories; 1) Biomaterials for cell culture, 2) Biomaterials for cell inducement, 3) Biomaterials for scaffold, 4) Biomaterials for immuno-isolation, 5) Biomaterials assist to regenerative medicine. As for 1), temperature responsible gel that can take out the cultured cell sheet without use protein breakdown enzyme, is mainly introduced. Micro-photolithography to make a micro patterning for cell inducement, kinds of materials for scaffold, isolated membrane and micro capsules, carrier for cell growth factors are mentioned in 2) to 5).

[Biomaterials for bone filling: comparisons between autograft, hydroxyapatite and one highly purified bovine xenograft]
Chappard, D., A. Zhioua, et al. (1993), Bull Assoc Anat (Nancy) 77(239): 59-65.
Abstract: Bone grafts are becoming increasingly common in orthopaedics, neurosurgery and periodontology. Twenty one New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study comparing several materials usable as bone substitutes. A 4.5 mm hole was drilled in the inner femoral condyles. Holes were filled with either an autograft (from the opposite condyle), an hydroxylapatite (Bioapatite), or a highly purified bovine xenograft (T650 Lubboc). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months post implantation and a quantitative analysis of newly-formed bone volume (BNF/IV) and remaining biomaterials (BMAT/IV) was done. In addition, some holes were left unfilled and served as controls. At 6 months, there was no tendency for spontaneous repair in the control animals. The autografted animals have repaired their trabecular mass and architecture within the first month. Hydroxylapatite appeared unresorbed at six months and only thin and scanty new trabeculae were observed. The xenograft induced woven bone trabeculae formation on the first month. This was associated with resorption of the material by two multinucleated cell populations. At six months, the epiphyseal architecture was restored and the biomaterial has disappeared in most cases. Xenografts appear a promising alternative to autografts and allografts, whose infectious risks and ethical problems should always be borne in mind.

[Biomaterials for the locomotor apparatus]
Hardouin, P. (1992), Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 59(12): 829-33.

[Biomaterials in an osteo-articular environment. Report of 129 anatomoclinical cases]
Adnet, J. J., E. Jallot, et al. (1998), Morphologie 82(258): 3-9.
Abstract: Actually, there is a range of biomaterials which are synthetic or metallic (or the both). They are employed as prosthesis (biostability property) or as bone graft (bioresorbability property). To understand the interactions between cells and such materials, we studied with human bone cellular cultures the cytologycal, immunohistochemical, cytogenetical and ultrastructural aspects of biomaterials in cell cultures. This paper concerns bioceramics like Pyrost, coral, biosorb, oxbone and polymers like polyethylene and silicones. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of some biomaterials. We found that porosity is primordial to promote biodegradation of bone substitutes. In fact, the biomaterials is integrated and lead to an osteoconduction, an osteoformation and finally an osteoinduction. Our observations show the implant resorption and ossification occurring in the matrix which penetrate it.

[Biomaterials in implantology]
Tavares, A. V. (1990), Stoma (Lisb) 2(17): 7-10, 15-8, 21-4 passim.

[Biomaterials in oral surgery. 3. Standardized bioceramic cones for retrograde obturation after apicectomy]
Gonzalez, A., D. Belo Moreira, et al. (1988), Rev Port Estomatol Cir Maxilofac 29(4): 241-9.

[Biomaterials in oral surgery]
Fernando Peres, A. G. (1988), Rev Port Estomatol Cir Maxilofac 29(3): 215-26.

[Biomaterials in otology]
Portmann, M. (1991), Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 112(4): 301-3.
Abstract: Biomaterial may be biological or non-biological in origin. Only the latter will be considered here. Their possible use in otology is threefold: ossiculoplasty: the author recalls the different materials used during the past 30 years. Today, it seems that only certain ceramics are able to compete with auto and homografts. Hydroxylapatite ossicles are a perfectly good alternative; canal wall reconstruction in radical operations: in this context their role appears to be less satisfactory than that of autografts; cavity obliteration: very useful and effective when performed in the correct situation and under certain well-defined technical conditions. After outlining the different materials used in the past 30 years, the author draws upon the experience of his own school to give his personal opinion.

[Biomaterials in plastic and maxillofacial surgery]
Lodde, J. P. (1995), Ann Chir Plast Esthet 40(6): 676-89.
Abstract: The major progress in biomaterials over recent years have concerned osteosynthesis, reconstruction and creation of the shapes of bones and soft tissues and gluing. In the authors' field of osteosynthesis, "pure" medical titanium, particularly T40, is perfectly adapted to situations (face, hand) in which the bone constraints are much lower than those encountered in hip and long bone surgery. Two improvements can be recommended: reheated titanium T40 due to its improved ductility; cermets (ceramo-metallic biomaterials) which have an excellent biocompatibility and which allow bone-implant liaisons, particularly for the bony fixation of epithesis supports. Ceramics and coral can be safely used to fill bone defects, in situations with low constraints. Numerous products are available and improve each year. For an equal quality, it is preferable to use the least expensive. Numerous products are available for reconstruction or creation of soft tissues, but present various disadvantages such as collagen, which is not resorbed, collagen-bioceramic, bone-collagen, hydroxyapatite-gelatin composites have a promising future, but the follow-up is too short at the present time. Fluorinated polymers, of which Gore-Tex is the leader, have been used for about thirty years in multiple applications, and certainly have a great future. The technology of biological glues is difficult, but this line of research is very interesting and promising for glues derived from non-living substances.

[Biomaterials in the human]
Schumpelick, V. (1999), Chirurg 70(8): 845-6.

[Biomaterials in the skeletal system]
Schildhauer, T. A., C. J. Gekle, et al. (1999), Chirurg 70(8): 888-96.
Abstract: The increasing number of biomaterials for the skeletal system requires mote and move their distinct clinical application. To guarantee useful therapeutic results the characteristics of the biomaterials have to be matched with the characteristics of the implantation site. Recently developed biodegradable polymers with a slow degradation process and longer stability are being increasingly clinically applied with a low complication rate. The development of new remodelable bone cements for bone-defect filling revives the idea of cement-metallic implant constructs. Finally, recombinant human bone growth factors are currently under controlled clinical examination with first promising results. Long-term results allowing common clinical use of these factors are still to be expected.

[Biomaterials in urology]
Seiter, H., K. P. Schmitz, et al. (2000), Urologe A 39(5): 463-8.
Abstract: Biomaterials are defined as non-living materials which are used in interaction with biological systems. Especially in the field of urology, biomaterials are applied in urinary diversion, urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and as cosmetic prostheses. Biomaterial-tissue interaction is caused by the physical and chemical characteristics of the biomaterial, its degradation, and the resulting protein denaturation. General requirements include biocompatibility and functionality and the avoidance of carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and allergic reactions. This is most important when there is permanent contact between urine and epithelial tissue, which may lead to biofilminfection and incrustation. Continuous modification of known materials, inauguration of new materials, as well as the possibilities of tissue engineering will determine their development in the years to come.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006