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[Biochemical study of biomaterials. Cell response in relation to mechanical stress]
Matsumoto, T. (1987), Kanagawa Shigaku 22(2): 355-66.

[Biochemical study of biomaterials. Characterization of human periodontal ligament fibroblast-like cells]
Nakajima, M. (1987), Kanagawa Shigaku 22(2): 340-54.

[Biocompatibility of biomaterials used in dentistry]
Sato, A. (1997), Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi 64(3): 397-404.

[Biocompatibility testing of various biomaterials as dependent on immune status]
Endres, S., M. Landgraff, et al. (2004), Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 142(3): 358-65.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study deals with the ingrowth behaviour of biomaterials (hydroxyapatite, cp-titanium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and PAEK) in relationship to the immunological competence in an animal model. Measured were the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) after implantation in non-immunocompetent naked mice and immunocompetent wild mice. Intention of the trial was to find out if either the immunological competence or the duration of implantation influences the quantity of produced ECM. In addition, the ingrowth behaviour was investigated under these conditions by using four different biomaterials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Biomaterials (hydroxyapatite, cp-titanium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and PAEK) were implanted for 14 or 60 days, respectively. CLSM, SEM and SEM-EDX were used for analysis of the ECM and for measuring the distance between ECM and the biomaterials. CLSM was also used for the detection of collagen I and III as a parameter of the quality of osteointegration. RESULTS: In all cases a matrix grew on the surface of the biomaterials. The CLSM detected a co-localisation of collagen I and III. In the case of hydroxyapatite collagen I and III were found at a distance of 1 micro m over the surface. The largest space between the surface of the implant and the ECM was found in the case of PAEK. The smallest space was in the case of hydroxyapatite. In all investigated biomaterials the proportion of collagen I to collagen III varied through the duration of implantation. DISCUSSION: As is known from the literature we found different ingrowth behaviours on using different biomaterials. Furthermore, we found a statistically significant influence of the immunological competence of the host with regard to ECM production. We draw the conclusion that immunological competence improves the ingrowth behaviour of biomaterials.

[Biodegradable ceramics as a biomaterial]
Shibata, K. I. (1983), Gifu Shika Gakkai Zasshi 10(2): 341-5.

[Biological effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 on the dental pulp cells]
Su, Q., L. Ye, et al. (2005), Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 23(1): 79-81.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological effects of the new nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 biological composites (nHA-PA66) on the dental pulp cells. METHODS: After interaction with the nHA-PA66 eluate, the growth, proliferation, and function of the in vitro cultured human dental pulp cells were studied by cell culture technique, inverted phase-contrast microscope observation, MTT assay, flow cytometry, ALP activity assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis. RESULTS: The cultured pulp cells grew well and showed no morphological variation. Moreover, this material had no negative effects on the proliferation, cell cycle, ALP activity and the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mRNA of the pulp cells. CONCLUSION: As a new nano-biomaterial, nHA-PA66 has good biocompatibility to the pulp cells, but no obvious bioactivity.

[Biological evaluation of biomaterials using cultured chick embryo femurs (3)]
Hikage, S., M. Atsuta, et al. (1989), Shika Zairyo Kikai 8(5): 642-7.
Abstract: The biological effects of adhesive resins were studied by an organ culture method using chick embryo femurs, of which usefulness was investigated to evaluate the biocompatibility of biomaterials. Superbond C & B and Panavia EX were processed to form test pieces of 0.35 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length. The test piece was inserted into the distal epiphysis of the femur, which was cultured at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The biomaterials were evaluated by relative growth rate, relative wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and histological examination. The femurs with insertion of Superbond C & B or Panavia EX did not show growth inhibition, but W/D of Panavia EX was significantly higher than that of control. Histologically, undifferentiated cartilage cells and immature cartilage matrix were observed in the tissue adjacent to Panavia EX. These results suggested that Panavia EX had a slightly toxic effect on the chick embryo femur.

[Biological glues and biomaterials in periodontal surgery. Description of a surgical reattachment technic]
Itic, J. and R. Serfaty (1990), J Parodontol 9(1): 19-27.
Abstract: A major research problem over the past 10 years is to obtain a new attachment after treatment of roots previously exposed to periodontal disease. Among the most recent studies, two main objectives of surgery are suggested: a selection of cell population and to arrest epithelial migration by guided tissue regeneration with a membrane, and a biological and chemical root preparation with citric acid and fibronectin. A technique for the treatment of deep osseous lesion is put forward here: the association of biodegradable membrane--natural coral--citric acid and fibronectin.

[Biological testing of biomaterials in the framework of permitted procedures. 2.]
Jacker, H. J., I. Amon, et al. (1988), Z Exp Chir Transplant Kunstliche Organe 21(6): 302-12.
Abstract: Submitted is the revised version of a proposal for a guideline for biological testing of materials (biomaterials) which remain temporarily or permanently, resp., at or in the human body or have contact with drugs or body fluids outside the human body.

[Biological tests of sol-gel biomaterials]
Ulatowska-Jarza, A., H. Podbielska, et al. (2000), Polim Med 30(1-2): 45-54.
Abstract: Recently, the sol-gel based biomaterials are extendedly investigated in emphasis on theirs medical applications. In this respect it is important to investigate the influence of sol-gel matrices on biological systems. The results of laboratory and biological testing of water extracts of sol-gels are presented in this work. It was proved that it is possible to construct the sol-gels that are not cytotoxic for which the haemolytic reactions fulfils the foreseen norms. This can be achieved by heating the materials in certain temperatures (higher than 350 degrees C). This effect can also be reached by suitably long aging (minimum 6 months).

[Biomaterial and cells scaffold for tissue engineering uses]
Wang, S., J. Yang, et al. (2000), Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 16(6): 328-30.

[Biomaterial in oral surgery--biomaterial for hard tissue]
Enomoto, S. (1981), Nippon Shika Ishikai Zasshi 34(3): 246-51.

[Biomaterial regulation (biostoffverordnung) - aspects of the practical conversion]
Kralj, N. (2002), Z Gastroenterol 40 Suppl 1: S116-S8.
Abstract: German Biomaterial regulation (Biostoffverordnung) applies for activities with biological materials (BM). The purpose of this regulation is protection of employees working with BM. BM are micro organisms, inclusively genetically changed micro organisms, cell cultures and human pathogene endoparasits, which cause infections, sensitizing or toxic effects on humans. This regulation describes the necessary organizational, safety-relevant, personally and hygiene measures for the prevention of the diseases and damages caused by BA.

[Biomaterial studies in cultures of human stapedial bone-like cells]
Dost, P., M. Wiemann, et al. (2005), Hno 53(6): 545-7.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cell culture studies may provide information on the behavior of biomaterials in the intended implant environment. Cell cultures from such an environment could be used for the development of middle ear implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Secondary bone-like cell cultures derived from human stapes were exposed to different materials [Al(2)O(3) ceramic, glass ceramic (Ceravital), gold and titanium]. Proliferation was studied for up to 40 days. RESULTS: The proliferation of cultured stapes bone-like cells did not differ significantly between the four tested biomaterials. The well known cytotoxic effect of copper, which was used as a control, was evident. CONCLUSIONS: Four biomaterials [Al(2)O(3) ceramic, glass ceramic (Ceravital), gold and titanium] have similar biocompatibility and no toxicity when tested in human stapes cell cultures. This in vitro model may be of considerable value for the further development of middle ear implants, e.g., when coated with bone morphogenetic proteins.

[Biomaterial to communicate with cells: adhesion and gene expression of cells]
Ito, Y. (2000), Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 45(5): 727-34.

[Biomaterial: cartilage--use in oromandibulofacial surgery]
Puelacher, W. (1990), Biomed Tech (Berl) 35 Suppl 2: 230-1.

[Biomaterials and dressings]
Lacour, J. P. and J. P. Ortonne (1988), Ann Dermatol Venereol 115(12): 1301-4.

[Biomaterials and hernia surgery. Rationale for using them]
Amid, P. K., A. G. Shulman, et al. (1995), Rev Esp Enferm Dig 87(8): 582-6.
Abstract: A study was made of the distinct biomaterials used in surgery and the requirements to be fulfilled and principles applied for their use in the repair of abdominal wall hernias. The biomaterials most frequently used in hernia surgery are: politetrafluorethylene (PTFE) sheet (Gore-Tex), the multifilament PTFE mesh (Teflon), the multifilament polypropylene mesh (Surgipro), the mono-filament polypropylene mesh (Marlex), the double filament polypropylene mesh (Prolene) and the multi-filament polyester mesh (Mersilene). Requirements for use in hernia surgery: the material must be inert, permanent and non-reabsorbable, resistant to infection, becomes rapidly fixed and incorporated into the host tissues, and not adhere to abdominal viscera. Principles for use: based on the overlapping of the mesh with the aponeurotic plane such that abdominal pressure aids fixation to this plane; contact with abdominal viscera must be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: based on the published experimental and clinical experience of the authors and other researchers, polypropylene is judged to be the most appropriate material for the repair of abdominal hernias.

[Biomaterials and infection in dental and maxillofacial surgery]
Muster, D. (1992), Agressologie 33 Spec No 3: 127-30.
Abstract: Based on metals, polymers, ceramics, carbons or natural products, biomaterials represent an essential contribution to the repair or reconstruction of the hard or soft tissues of the dental and maxillofacial area. In order to avoid unsuccessful results these materials should realize a satisfactory tissue integration without bacterial colonization able to compromise the tissue-biomaterial finalized cooperation. The evolution of the science and technology of biomaterials should allow to get tissue toxicity-free materials which also inhibit microorganisms adherence, the infectability becoming a criteria as important as the biocompatibility itself.

[Biomaterials and joint prostheses. Resurfacing]
Passuti, N. (1997), Chirurgie 122(3): 224-8.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006