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Sorption of metal ions from aqueous solution using bone char
Choy, K. K. and G. McKay (2005), Environ Int 31(6): 845-54.
Abstract: The sorption of cadmium, copper and zinc from aqueous solutions onto bone char has been studied in both single and binary multi-component systems. Equilibrium experimental studies have been performed to determine the sorption capacity of bone char for each metal ion. The isotherm results have been analysed using single and multi-component equilibrium models. The rate of sorption of the metal ions onto bone char has been studied using an agitated batch adsorber. The concentration versus time decay curves have been measured and a number of mass transfer models have been developed and tested based on diffusion controlled sorption. The results of the equilibrium and rate studies are presented and discussed in the paper. The possible mechanisms of metal sorption are also discussed. Finally a series of fixed bed column studies have been performed and analysed using a diffusion mass transport model. The experimental results show a displacement effect for the binary metal ion breakthrough curves.

Sorting a Staphylococcus aureus phage display library against ex vivo biomaterial
Bjerketorp, J., A. Rosander, et al. (2004), J Med Microbiol 53(Pt 10): 945-51.
Abstract: A phage display library made from Staphylococcus aureus DNA was sorted against a central venous catheter (CVC) that had been removed from a patient 2 days after insertion. After the first panning, approximately 50% of the clones encoded proteins known to interact with mammalian proteins. After the second and third pannings, fibrinogen-binding and beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI)-binding phage particles were clearly dominating. Proteins adsorbed to different CVCs were investigated using specific antibodies. Among the proteins probed for, fibrinogen was most abundant, but, interestingly, beta2-GPI was also detected on all tested CVCs.

Sovering annuloplasty rings: experimental pathology in the sheep model
Della Barbera, M., F. Laborde, et al. (2005), Cardiovasc Pathol 14(2): 96-103.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: A new flexible annuloplasty ring (Sovering, Sorin Biomedica Cardio), both closed and open, has been designed and consists of radiopaque silicone core impregnated with barium sulfate and covered by a knitted polyester fabric coated with Carbofilm. The aim of the study was to test the biological compatibility of the new device in large animals in orthotopic position. METHODS: Ten Sovering rings were implanted in 10 female adult sheep, 7 mitral (3 open, 4 closed) and 3 tricuspid (all open). The size was 23-25 mm in the mitral and 28-30 mm in the tricuspid position, and the time in place varied from 63 to 110 days (mean = 89 +/- 14) and from 58 to 63 days (mean = 61 +/- 3), respectively. The morphological analysis consisted of gross, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations. RESULTS: The prosthetic ring appeared well implanted in the valve atrioventricular (AV) junction, encapsulated by a thin fibrous sheath without any evidence of thrombus deposition, fibrinous lining or exuberant fibrous tissue overgrowth. No adverse inflammatory reaction was observed, but rare lymphocytes, macrophages and foreign body giant cells. At electron microscopy, the fibrous tissue appeared to permeate deeply within the fabric network; reendothelization on the surface was noted and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Sirius red staining at polarized light revealed a higher content of collagen type III in the mitral than in the tricuspid position. CONCLUSIONS: Sovering annuloplasty rings implanted in the AV valves of adult sheep showed excellent biocompatibility, fibrous encapsulation and reendothelization. The absence of thrombosis and exuberant fibrous tissue reaction supports the effective use of Carbofilm covering in annuloplasty devices.

Spatial and angular distribution of light incident on coatings using Mie-scattering Monte Carlo simulations
Yamada, M., M. D. Butts, et al. (2005), J Cosmet Sci 56(3): 193-204.
Abstract: We show the results of Mie-scattering Monte Carlo models developed to simulate the optical properties of light incident on particle-containing coatings. The model accommodates mixtures of particles with different sizes and complex refractive indices, enabling the simulation of formulations, including pigments. The simulation tracks trajectories of photons as they propagate through the turbid medium, calculating both angular and spatial light intensity distributions. Scalar quantities such as total transmission and reflection, and haze and diffuse reflectance, are also calculated.

Spatial distribution of protein molecules adsorbed at a polyelectrolyte multilayer
Jackler, G., C. Czeslik, et al. (2005), Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 71(4 Pt 1): 041912.
Abstract: The spatial distribution of protein molecules interacting with a planar polyelectrolyte multilayer was determined using neutron reflectometry. Staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) was used as model protein that was adsorbed to the multilayer at 22 degrees C and 42 degrees C. At each temperature, the protein solution was adjusted to pD -values of 4.9 and 7.5 to vary the net charge of the protein molecules. The multilayer was built up on a silicon wafer by the deposition of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in the order Si-PEI-PSS- (PAH-PSS)(5). Applying the contrast variation technique, two different neutron reflectivity curves were measured at each condition of temperature and pD -value. From the analysis of the curves, protein density profiles normal to the interface were recovered. Remarkably, it has been found that SNase is partially penetrating into the polyelectrolyte multilayer after adsorption at all conditions studied. The measured neutron reflectivities are consistent with a penetration depth of 50 A at pD=4.9 and 25 A at pD=7.5. Since SNase has an isoelectric point of pH=9.5, it carries a net positive charge at both pD -values and interacts with the PSS final layer under electrostatic attraction conditions. However, when increasing the temperature, the amount of adsorbed protein is increasing at both pD -values indicating the dominance of entropic driving forces for the protein adsorption. Interestingly, at pD=4.9 where the protein charge is relatively high, this temperature-induced mass increase of immobilized protein is more pronounced within the polyelectrolyte multilayer, whereas at pD=7.5, closer to the isoelectric point of SNase, raising the temperature has mainly the effect to accumulate protein molecules outside the polyelectrolyte multilayer at the water interface. It is suggested that the penetration of SNase into the polyelectrolyte multilayer is related to a complexation mechanism. The complexation is essentially entropic in nature due to the release of counterions.

Special issue: biomaterials for spinal applications
Lu, L. and M. J. Yaszemski (2006), Biomaterials 27(3): 289.

Special report: NIST workshop on reference data for the properties of biomaterials
Tesk, J. A. (2001), J Biomed Mater Res 58(5): 463-6.
Abstract: A workshop on Reference Data for Biomaterials was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on July 27, 2000. The primary purpose of the workshop was to determine whether needs existed for the establishment of reference data (RD) databases on the properties of biomaterials. Special attention was given to critiqued RD such as those traditionally found in databases that are established within the NIST Standard Reference Data Program. Critiqued data are data that have been critically evaluated for issues dealing with components of uncertainty, experimental design (details, descriptions, and appropriateness), measurement methods (appropriateness), conclusions drawn from the data, and so forth. Among the workshop's 65 registrants were representatives from industry, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and academia. These joined with NIST staff to address reference biomaterial property database needs within five categories: orthopedic, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, tissue-engineered, and dental biomaterials. A general session on other issues focused specifically on database accesses (portals), contents, and maintenance. While the workshop's intended focus was on critiqued RD, it was suggested that closely related issues be considered as well. In this way, a more comprehensive assessment of opportunities for the cooperation of NIST with the biomaterials community might be developed. As a result, the needs for noncritiqued data and for reference materials (RMs), useful for developing data, also became a part of the focus of the workshop. Hence, this article presents the results from the breakout sessions of the workshop according to two categories: reference data and databases, and reference materials. In the following summary, the workshop is presented in the following order: An introduction to databases, resource presentations, action items identified in breakout sessions, assessment of resources (personnel and monetary) needed to work on action items, and portals for databases. Except for the individual concurrent breakout sessions themselves, all other sessions of the workshop were participated in fully by those in attendance.

Special report: the interfacial behavior of biomaterials, 1979
Hench, L. L. (1980), J Biomed Mater Res 14(6): 803-11.

Special section on polymer biomaterials
Albertsson, A. C. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(3): 1159.

Speciation of organotin compounds in marine biomaterials after basic leaching in a non-focused microwave extractor equipped with pressurized vessels
Rodriguez, I., M. Santamarina, et al. (1997), J Chromatogr A 774(1-2): 379-87.
Abstract: A rapid method for the speciation of butyl- and triphenyltin compounds in marine biotissues is described. A non-focused microwave extractor, operating at a power of 950 W and equipped with 12 pressurized vessels, was used to achieve fast sample leaching with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The pH of the liquid extract was adjusted to 5. Organotins were ethylated with sodium tetraethylborate, extracted in isooctane and determined by means of a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detector coupled to a gas chromatograph. The stability of butyl and phenyl compounds, exposed to the microwave energy, was studied as a function of the vessel temperature. The possibility of simultaneous carried-out extractions and the use of microwave to perform the ethylation and extraction of organotin compounds was also studied. The full procedure was validated with certified material NIES-11 and with real samples, by comparison with a classic leaching method using tetramethylammonium hydroxide without microwave.

Specific immune response to staphylococcal antigens during long-lasting biomaterial implantation
Rudnicka, W., B. Sadowska, et al. (1997), FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 19(1): 7-14.
Abstract: Biomaterial-associated infections caused by staphylococci are one of the main therapeutic problems in modern medicine. There is no doubt that local disfunction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages predisposes to such infections. However, it is not clear how implantation of a foreign body influences the antibacterial immune response. We analyzed some parameters of the specific immune response to staphylococcal antigens, in mice implanted for 3 months with heparinized polyethylene. Three weeks before the evaluation of the immune response, mice (implanted and non-implanted) were infected i.p. with 2 x 10(7) cells of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1. The proliferation of splenocytes was determined on the basis of [3H]thymidine incorporation in cultures stimulated with staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid, protein A, alpha-toxin, or phytohemagglutinin. Moreover, the level of specific antibodies to staphylococcal antigens was determined in serum samples (ELISA with the antigens lipoteichoic acid, protein A, and alpha-toxin). The data obtained indicate that long-lasting implantation caused evident changes in proliferative activity of lymphocytes and in humoral response to staphylococcal antigens. It enhanced spontaneous and lipoteichoic acid- or alpha-toxin-stimulated proliferation of splenocytes, in vitro. In contrast, heparinized polyethylene-implanted animals showed a significant decrease in the production of anti-protein A IgG2b and anti-alpha-toxin IgG2a and IgG2b.

Specific interactions in modified chitosan systems
Rinaudo, M., R. Auzely, et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(5): 2396-407.
Abstract: This paper concerns the bulk and interfacial properties of a series of alkylated chitosans having different alkyl chain lengths grafted randomly along the main chitosan chain. Chitosan has a low degree of acetylation (5%); on chitosan derivatives, the role of the degree of grafting and of length of the alkyl chains are examined. The optimum alkyl chain length is C12 and the degree of grafting 5% to get physical gelation based on the formation of hydrophobic domains. The cross-linking is essentially controlled by the salt concentration: it is shown that 0.025 M AcONa is needed to screen electrostatic interchain repulsions. Hydrophobic interactions produce highly non-Newtonian behavior with large thinning behavior; this behavior is suppressed in the presence of cyclodextrins able to cap the hydrophobic alkyl chains.The interfacial properties of the chitosan derivatives were tested for the air/aqueous solution interfaces. Specifically, the role of their structure on the kinetic of film formation was examined showing that excess of external salt favors the stabilization of the interfacial film. The derivatives with a higher degree of substitution and longer alkyl chains are more efficient and give a higher elastic modulus compared to the model surfactant as a result of the chain properties.

Specific interactions of polystyrene biomaterials with factor D of human complement
Pascual, M., O. Plastre, et al. (1993), Biomaterials 14(9): 665-70.
Abstract: The contact of blood with some biomaterials results in complement activation, primarily by the alternative pathway (AP). Insoluble polystyrene derivatives bearing isolated sulphonate groups (PSSO3) deplete complement, whereas identical surfaces substituted with both sulphonate and hydroxymethyl groups (PSCH2OH-SO3) are non-activators. Polystyrene sulphonate derivatives possess high adsorptive properties, particularly for serine proteases of the coagulation cascade. Thus, we studied the interactions between polystyrene derivatives and factor D, an enzyme essential for AP activation. C3 was activated when normal human serum (NHS) was incubated with PSSO3, whereas PSCH2OH-SO3 did not induce any specific C3 activation. Both polymers adsorbed factor D from serum, as shown by the loss of haemolytic factor D from NHS incubated with the polymers and by the specific adsorption of radiolabelled factor D. When bound to the polymers, factor D was not functional. The disappearance of factor D was in contradiction to the observed complement activation induced by PSSO3. When other AP components were studied, it was evident that PSSO3 adsorbed factor H even more rapidly and efficiently than factor D. Thus, the net effect was an immediate deregulation of the AP resulting in C3 activation, followed by inhibition of the AP when factor D was finally depleted. Pre-exposure of PSSO3 to NHS prevented any complement activation because the polymer was saturated with factor H, but still adsorbed factor D. Such properties could be beneficial during haemodialysis with membranes for uremic patients who have increased levels of factor D in their serum.

Specific interference of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression induced by double-stranded RNA results in decreased invasion, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in gliomas
Lakka, S. S., C. S. Gondi, et al. (2005), J Biol Chem 280(23): 21882-92.
Abstract: We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of adenovirus-mediated expression of antisense urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in inhibiting tumor invasion in vitro and ex vivo. However, the therapeutic effect of the adenovirus-mediated antisense approach was shown to be transient and required potentially toxic, high viral doses. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene targeting may be superior to the traditional antisense approach, because the target mRNA is completely degraded and the molar ratio of siRNA required to degrade the target mRNA is very low. Here, we have examined the siRNA-mediated target RNA degradation of uPAR and MMP-9 in human glioma cell lines. Using RNAi directed toward uPAR and MMP-9, we achieved specific inhibition of uPAR and MMP-9. This bicistronic construct (pUM) inhibited the formation of capillary-like structures in both in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis. We demonstrated that blocking the expression of these genes results in significant inhibition of glioma tumor invasion in Matrigel and spheroid invasion assay models. RNAi for uPAR and MMP-9 inhibited cell proliferation, and significantly reduced the levels of phosphorylated forms of MAPK, ERK, and AKT signaling pathway molecules when compared with parental and empty vector/scrambled vector-transfected SNB19 cells. Furthermore, using RNAi to simultaneously target two proteases resulted in total regression of pre-established intracerebral tumor growth. Our results provide evidence that the use of hairpin siRNA expression vectors for uPAR and MMP-9 may provide an effective tool for cancer therapy.

Spectacle frame induced irritant contact dermatitis
Kompella, V. B., S. Dhar, et al. (2005), Indian J Ophthalmol 53(2): 146.

Spinal instrumentation. Biomaterial, biomechanical, and clinical aspects
Cotler, J. M., T. S. Whitecloud, 3rd, et al. (1992), Contemp Orthop 24(2): 211-37.

Spinning the wheels of biomaterials or making progress?
Bruck, S. D. (1978), Int J Artif Organs 1(4): 163-4.

Spontaneous growth of a laminin-apatite nano-composite in a metastable calcium phosphate solution
Oyane, A., M. Uchida, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(2): 167-75.
Abstract: We have previously reported that a laminin-apatite composite layer is formed on an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) in a laminin-containing calcium phosphate (LCP) solution. In this work, the stability of the LCP solution and growth process of the laminin-apatite composite layer have been investigated. Dynamic light scattering technique revealed that the LCP solution was stable for periods as long as 24 h; it did not induce homogeneous precipitation of laminin or calcium phosphates in the solution. Analysis of the EVOH surface and the LCP solution showed that the laminin-apatite composite layer was formed via coprecipitation of laminin and apatite on the EVOH plate, i.e., spontaneous growing of apatite and simultaneous immobilization of laminin molecules or laminin-calcium phosphate nano-complexes onto its surface. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that the laminin molecules in the resulting composite layer were not localized or aggregated, but were dispersed on a nano-scale in the entire layer. Because of this nano-composite structure, a large number of laminin molecules were stably immobilized on the EVOH plate. This may be responsible for the excellent cell adhesion properties of this type of composite material.

Spontaneously forming hydrogel from water-soluble random- and block-type phospholipid polymers
Kimura, M., K. Fukumoto, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(34): 6853-62.
Abstract: The mixed aqueous solutions of two water-soluble phospholipid polymers, such as poly[2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine(MPC)-co-methacrylic acid(MA)] (rPMA) and poly[MPC-co-n-butyl methacrylate(BMA)] (PMB), spontaneously form a hydrogel at room temperature without any chemical treatment due to hydrogen bonding formation between the carboxyl groups. With the objective of enhancing the hydrogen bonding efficiency, we have focused on the density of the carboxyl groups by controlling the chemical structure and monomer unit sequence. Thus, a random and an ABA-block-type MPC copolymer having carboxylic acids, poly[MPC-co-4-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimellitic acid(MET)] (rPMT) and poly(MA)-poly(MPC)-poly(MA) (bPMA), have been designed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the gelation mechanism and physical properties of a hydrogel composed of rPMA and PMB (ABgel), one of bPMA and PMB (bABgel), and one of rPMT and poly(MPC-co-benzyl methacrylate) (PMBz) (TZgel). The Raman spectroscopic analysis and the rheological study of the dissolution behaviors indicated that the TZgel formation occurred due to inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding formation between the carboxyl groups in the rPMT. The gelation mechanism of the bABgel was investigated by the dynamic light scattering measurement, the scanning electron microscopy observation and the rheological study. The results showed that the bPMA chains aggregate in the aqueous medium and transform into a hydrogel network structure. The bPMA needed much more gelation time than the rPMA due to this transformation. There was no difference between the gelation periods of the ABgel and the TZgel. The compression strengths of the ABgel and the bABgel showed no significant difference, while that of TZgel was lower than ABgel. The reason for this is that the polymer chains and bulky side chains of rPMT inhibit rearranging into a planar conformation and forming hydrogen bondings. These results lead to the conclusion that the properties of these MPC polymer hydrogels can be controlled by not only the chemical structure of the polymer but also the monomer unit sequence containing carboxyl groups.

Stability of insulin during the erosion of poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres
Ibrahim, M. A., A. Ismail, et al. (2005), J Control Release 106(3): 241-52.
Abstract: In recent years, the acylation of peptides during the erosion of poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres has been described in the literature. To investigate whether insulin is prone to the covalent attachment of lactic or glycolic acid, insulin-loaded PLA and PLGA microspheres containing 5% bovine insulin were manufactured using a w/o/w multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres were characterized for their insulin encapsulation efficiency and release characteristics in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. Moreover, the stability of the peptide during 18 days of release was evaluated using HPLC and HPLC-MS techniques. The results showed that the insulin loading efficiencies of PLA and PLGA microspheres were 75.18% and 79.63%, respectively. The microspheres were spherical with relatively porous surfaces with an average diameter of 40 and 53 mum, respectively. Insulin release from the microspheres was characterized by an initial burst, which was attributed to the amount of protein located on or close to the microsphere surface. The total ion chromatogram (TIC) of insulin samples extracted after 18 days of erosion in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C revealed that deamidation was the major mechanism of instability. Surprisingly, no acylation products were found. Control experiments in concentrated lactic acid solutions confirmed a minimal reactivity of the peptide under these conditions.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006