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Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. IX. Composites containing powdery polyacrylamide hydrogel
Hron, P., J. Slechtova, et al. (1997), Biomaterials 18(15): 1069-73.
Abstract: A composite material has been prepared consisting of a silicone rubber matrix and particulate lightly cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogel. The material, resembling common silicone rubber, is hydrophilic and swells in water like hydrogels. The polyacrylamide has a high specific surface area, a relatively low content of water-soluble low-molecular-weight compounds and, owing to its non-ionogenic character, a pH-independent swelling degree. For the composite material consisting of the silicone rubber and very fine powdery cross-linked polyacrylamide, we have measured the rate of swelling in water, the mechanical properties (tensile strength, break elongation, hardness, resilience), biological properties (implantation test, cytotoxicity, cell cultivation) and UV absorption of its water extracts. The polyacrylamide and polysiloxane purity, as the composite material starting components, has been determined to be satisfactory. As a result, a high swelling rate of the prepared composite material has been observed, resulting in reaching more than 70% wt of water of the equilibrium swelling. The results show that the composite material is suitable for biological and medical use.

Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. VI. Transport properties in the water-swollen state
Lopour, P. and V. Janatova (1995), Biomaterials 16(8): 633-40.
Abstract: Permeation of inorganic salts in water-swollen silicone rubber-hydrogel composites consisting of a silicone rubber matrix and lightly cross-linked particles of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), polyacrylamide or poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogels was investigated. The results, together with earlier data on permeation of non-ionic low-molecular-weight substances through the composite materials, were evaluated in terms of the free-volume diffusion theory. It was found that the materials with water content exceeding a certain limit are highly permeable to the salts, and that, as regards permeation properties, they behave as homogeneous water-swollen hydrogels. The dependence of electrical conductivity of the water-swollen composites on the hydrogel phase content was measured, and the results are discussed in relation to other transport properties and to the structure of the materials.

Silk implants for the healing of critical size bone defects
Meinel, L., R. Fajardo, et al. (2005), Bone 37(5): 688-98.
Abstract: Bone (re)-generation and bone fixation strategies utilize biomaterial implants, which are gradually replaced by autologous tissues. Ideally, these biomaterials should be biodegradable, osteoconductive, and provide mechanical strength and integrity until newly formed host tissues can maintain function. Some protein-based biomaterials such as collagens are promising because of their biological similarities to natural proteins on bone surfaces. However, their use as bone implant materials is largely hampered by poor mechanical properties. In contrast, silks offer distinguishing mechanical properties that are tailorable, along with slow degradability to permit adequate time for remodeling. To assess the suitability of silk-based biomaterials as implants for bone healing, we explored the use of novel porous silk fibroin scaffolds as templates for the engineering of bone tissues starting from human bone marrow derived stem cells cultured under osteogenic conditions for up to 5 weeks. The slowly degrading protein matrix permitted adequate temporal control of hydroxyapatite deposition and resulted in the formation of a trabecular-like bone matrix in bioreactor studies. The organic and inorganic components of the engineered bone tissues resembled those of bone, as shown by gene expression analysis, biochemical assays, and X-ray diffractometry. Implantation of the tissue-engineered bone implants (grown in bioreactors for 5 weeks prior to implantation) into calvarial critical size defects in mice demonstrated the capacity of these systems to induce advanced bone formation within 5 weeks, whereas the implantation of stem cell loaded silk scaffolds, and scaffolds alone resulted in less bone formation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of silk-based implants with engineered bone for the (re-)generation of bone tissues and expand the class of protein-based bone-implant materials with a mechanically stable and durable option.

Silk-based biomaterials
Altman, G. H., F. Diaz, et al. (2003), Biomaterials 24(3): 401-16.
Abstract: Silk from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been used as biomedical suture material for centuries. The unique mechanical properties of these fibers provided important clinical repair options for many applications. During the past 20 years, some biocompatibility problems have been reported for silkworm silk; however, contamination from residual sericin (glue-like proteins) was the likely cause. More recent studies with well-defined silkworm silk fibers and films suggest that the core silk fibroin fibers exhibit comparable biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo with other commonly used biomaterials such as polylactic acid and collagen. Furthermore, the unique mechanical properties of the silk fibers, the diversity of side chain chemistries for 'decoration' with growth and adhesion factors, and the ability to genetically tailor the protein provide additional rationale for the exploration of this family of fibrous proteins for biomaterial applications. For example, in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering these properties are particularly relevant and recent results with bone and ligament formation in vitro support the potential role for this biomaterial in future applications. To date, studies with silks to address biomaterial and matrix scaffold needs have focused on silkworm silk. With the diversity of silk-like fibrous proteins from spiders and insects, a range of native or bioengineered variants can be expected for application to a diverse set of clinical needs.

Silver alloy catheters
Tew, L. (2005), Br J Community Nurs 10(7): 312; author reply 312.

Silver growth on micropatterned DNA chips: effect of growth conditions and morphology on I-V behavior
Greninger, D. A., S. Pathak, et al. (2005), J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5(3): 409-15.
Abstract: An approach to the design of DNA-based electronics is presented, in which standard microfabrication processes are integrated with lithographic patterning of single-stranded oligonucleotides followed by hybridization to gold-labeled, complementary oligonucleotides and subsequent silver enhancement for signal amplification. The resulting bioinorganic devices demonstrate micron-sized geometric features, very little non-specific silver growth, a distinct silver morphology in the patterned region, and a 10(9)-fold increase in conductivity across an electrode gap when compared with control devices. This approach may prove useful for the fabrication of high fidelity, high-density arrays for DNA-based biosensing applications.

Silver methenamine staining for scanning electron microscopy of bone sections containing biomaterials
Frayssinet, P., J. S. Hanker, et al. (1999), Biotech Histochem 74(1): 10-5.
Abstract: Sections of tissue containing orthopedic materials are currently used to study the compatibility of those materials and to perform electron probe microanalysis at the material-tissue interface. Identification of the cells in contact with the material by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is of interest. We have developed a method for staining cells and tissue structures embedded in polymethyl methacrylate with silver methenamine once the sections have been obtained. Sections were prepared by grinding, and the silver methenamine was applied after oxidation with periodic acid. The procedure was carried out in a microwave oven. Backscatter SEM showed staining of the cell nucleus membrane, chromatin, the nuclear organizers, and the chromosomes of dividing cells. The cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic membrane were also stained. Collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix and the mineralized matrix of bone were labeled. Material particles in the macrophages were easily recognizable and Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer were not impaired by the presence of silver in the preparation.

Simple and accurate fracture toughness testing methods for pyrolytic carbon/graphite composites used in heart-valve prostheses
Kruzic, J. J., S. J. Kuskowski, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 74(3): 461-4.
Abstract: The fracture toughness is a critical material property for the pyrolytic carbon materials used in mechanical heart-valve prostheses; however, making accurate toughness measurements has traditionally been problematic due to difficulties in fatigue precracking specimens. In this work, a simple, effective, and reliable precracking method is presented where a sharp precrack is "popped in" from a razor micronotch, which allows significant savings of time and materials relative to fatigue precracking methods. It is further shown that equivalent results may be obtained using razor micronotched specimens directly without precracking, provided the notch is sufficiently sharp. Indeed, mean toughness values of 1.46+/-0.13 and 1.35+/-0.09 MPa radicalm were obtained for the pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite materials, using precracked and razor micronotched specimens, respectively. The difference between these mean values proved to be statistically insignificant, and these values are in general agreement with published fracture toughness results obtained using fatigue precracked specimens.

Simple surface modification of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) to induce its apatite-forming ability
Oyane, A., M. Uchida, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(1): 138-45.
Abstract: A biodegradable polymer coated with a bone-like apatite layer on its surface is useful as a scaffold for bone tissue regeneration. In this work, a poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) surface was modified by an O2 plasma surface treatment to form oxygen-containing functional groups. The plasma-treated samples were subsequently dipped alternately in an alcoholic solution containing calcium ions and one containing phosphate ions to deposit apatite precursors on the surface. The surface-modified PCL samples formed a dense and uniform surface bone-like apatite layer after immersion for 24 h in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. This surface-modification process is applicable to two-dimensional PCL plates and three-dimensional PCL meshes. In the resulting apatite-PCL composite, the apatite layer strongly adhered to the PCL surface and remained intact after a tape-detachment test. Therefore, this type of composite material will be a useful scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

Simulation of gentamicin delivery for the local treatment of osteomyelitis
Lee, C. G., Y. C. Fu, et al. (2005), Biotechnol Bioeng 91(5): 622-35.
Abstract: In order to understand the effect of antibiotics delivery to bone tissue, by biodegradable polymeric drug disc, for the treatment of osteomyelitis, a three-dimensional simulation model is developed. The simulation investigates the effect of pressure-induced convection on drug distribution, by taking into account the pressure gradient that exists between capillaries and interstitial space, and also as a result of the surgical opening. The clotting process at the surgical opening is incorporated into the simulation, and the effect of clotting duration is investigated. The clotting duration for the baseline simulation is 2 days and it is observed that increasing this duration depresses the mean drug concentration in the marrow and cortical bone. The effect of double burst release profile is also studied and it is observed that drug concentration drops too rapidly after the first burst to provide any therapeutic effect. However, it is shown that the drug concentration after the second burst stays above the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteria for a longer period of time, than would have been observed for a mono-burst release. Inserting non-biodegradable polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads into bone seems to cause a higher average concentration of drug in the marrow. However, this could be brought about by the difference in the geometry between the disc and the bead, and the amount of drug packed in each bead. Further simulations on the management of dead space shows the ineffectiveness of having the void filled up with surgical gel as it becomes an additional barrier to drug delivery to the infected tissues.

Simultaneous and synergistic conversion of dyes and heavy metal ions in aqueous TiO2 suspensions under visible-light illumination
Kyung, H., J. Lee, et al. (2005), Environ Sci Technol 39(7): 2376-82.
Abstract: This study reports synergistic effects in the simultaneous conversion of dyes and heavy metal ions in aqueous TiO2/dye/metal ion systems (ternary components) under visible light (lambda > 420 nm). TiO2/Cr(VI)/Acid Orange 7 (AO7), TiO2/Cr(VI)/Rhodamine B (RhB), TiO2/Ag+/AO7, and TiO2/Ag+/RhB were chosen as test systems. Although dyes can be degraded in TiO2 suspensions under visible light, their removal rates were markedly enhanced in the presence of metal ions. Similarly, the reduction rates of metal ions in visible-light-illuminated TiO2 suspensions were negligible, but they were highly accelerated with dyes present. In particular, the synergistic effect in the ternary system of TiO2/Cr(VI)/AO7 was outstanding. The presence of dissolved oxygen increased the photoreduction rate of Cr(VI) despite the fact that Cr(VI) and O2 are competing electron acceptors. This is ascribed to in-situ photogenerated H2O2 from O2, which acts as a reductant of Cr(VI). RhB and Ag+ ions could be also converted simultaneously under visible light both in the presence and absence of TiO2. The visible-light-induced reduction of Ag+ did not occur at all in TiO2/Ag+ system, but it was enabled in both TiO2/Ag+/ RhB and TiO2/Ag+/AO7 to generate Ag particles. On the other hand, the binary systems of Cr(VI)/AO7, Ag+/AO7, and Ag+/RhB show significant visible-light activities for the conversion of both dye and metal ion. In this case, metal ions and dyes seem to form complexes that induce intracomplex electron transfers upon visible-light absorption. The Cr(VI)/RhB system, however, exhibited insignificant visible-light reactivity.

Simultaneous histological preparation of bone, soft tissue and implanted biomaterials for light microscopic observations
Steflik, D. E., R. V. McKinney, Jr., et al. (1982), Stain Technol 57(2): 91-8.
Abstract: Block specimens of formalin fixed bone, soft tissue and endosseous implanted biomaterials can be successfully embedded in polymethyl methacrylate by employing vacuum desiccation during the dehydration steps and refrigeration during the infiltration step. One-hundred-micrometer histological sections can be obtained from the cured polymethyl methacrylate blocks by cutting with a low concentration diamond wafering blade on a Buehler Isomet Circular Low Speed Saw using Buehler Isocut fluid. The sections can be readily stained and details of individual cells studied by light microscopy, thus allowing interpretation of the relationship between biomaterial and surrounding tissues. The advantage of this method is that it allows observations of the entire specimen in situ. The details of the procedure are presented.

Simultaneous kissing drug-eluting stent technique for percutaneous treatment of bifurcation lesions in large-size vessels
Sharma, S. K. (2005), Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 65(1): 10-6.
Abstract: Treatment of bifurcation lesions is associated with high procedural complications and restenosis rate due to plaque shift, suboptimal angiographic results, difficulty in crossing the stent struts, and incomplete coverage of the side-branch ostium. The simultaneous kissing stent (SKS) technique involves two stents, one in main vessel (MV) and one in the side branch (SB) with overlapping stents in the MV proximally, extending proximally the carina of bifurcation. We analyzed our first 200 consecutive patients (202 lesions) who underwent SKS technique for true bifurcation lesions using sirolimus eluting stents, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Procedural success was 100% for MV and 99% for SB using SKS technique, with clinical success rate of 97%. In-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac events were 3% and 5%, respectively, with a procedure time of 36 +/- 14 min. At mean follow-up of 9 +/- 2 months, the incidence of target lesion revascularization was 4% in the entire group. Therefore, SKS technique using sirolimus-eluting stents may become an effective treatment strategy for large-size bifurcation lesions. However, in order to establish its superiority, SKS technique needs to be compared in a randomized manner with conventional stent techniques.

Simultaneous mechanical loading and confocal reflection microscopy for three-dimensional microbiomechanical analysis of biomaterials and tissue constructs
Voytik-Harbin, S. L., B. A. Roeder, et al. (2003), Microsc Microanal 9(1): 74-85.
Abstract: At present, mechanisms by which specific structural and mechanical properties of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix microenvironment influence cell behavior are not known. Lack of such knowledge precludes formulation of engineered scaffolds or tissue constructs that would deliver specific growth-inductive signals required for improved tissue restoration. This article describes a new mechanical loading-imaging technique that allows investigations of structural-mechanical properties of biomaterials as well as the structural-mechanical basis of cell-scaffold interactions at a microscopic level and in three dimensions. The technique is based upon the integration of a modified, miniature mechanical loading instrument with a confocal microscope. Confocal microscopy is conducted in a reflection and/or fluorescence mode for selective visualization of load-induced changes to the scaffold and any resident cells, while maintaining each specimen in a "live," fully hydrated state. This innovative technique offers several advantages over current biomechanics methodologies, including simultaneous visualization of scaffold and/or cell microstructure in three dimensions during mechanical loading; quantification of macroscopic mechanical parameters including true stress and strain; and the ability to perform multiple analyses on the same specimen. This technique was used to determine the structural-mechanical properties of three very different biological materials: a reconstituted collagen matrix, a tissue-derived biomaterial, and a tissue construct representing cells and matrix.

Single component chitosan hydrogel microcapsule from a layer-by-layer approach
Zhang, Y., Y. Guan, et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(4): 2365-9.

Single-step covalent functionalization of polylactide surfaces
Edlund, U., M. Kallrot, et al. (2005), J Am Chem Soc 127(24): 8865-71.
Abstract: A single-step, nondestructive, and versatile technique for the grafting and chemical surface modification of biodegradable polymers such as polylactide is described. The substrates are subjected to the vapor phase of any of three investigated vinyl monomers: acrylamide, maleic anhydride, and N-vinylpyrrolidone, and grafting is induced by photoinitiation of benzophenone under solvent free conditions. The modified surfaces exhibit higher wettability, and the grafting is verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR, contact-angle measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. The graft-chain pendant groups remain functional and can subsequently be modified so that a tailor-made surface with desired properties may be achieved.

Sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement, part I: the 1-stage approach
Khatiblou, F. A. (2005), J Oral Implantol 31(4): 205-8.
Abstract: Osteotome sinus floor augmentation is a simple and conservative technique to increase the bone height on the sinus floor. In this report, a patient with a bone height of 5 to 6 mm in the extracted site of #3 was simultaneously treated with the osteotome sinus floor elevation technique and nonsubmerged implant placement. At 1-year follow-up, the entire length of the 10-mm-long implant was covered with new bone and the implant was solid and functional.

Sinus floor augmentation technique and simultaneous implant placement, part II: the 2-stage approach
Khatiblou, F. A. (2005), J Oral Implantol 31(4): 209-12.
Abstract: The 1-stage osteotome sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement technique has been previously reported as a simple solution to heighten the maxillary posterior region to nearly 5- to 6-mm bone height. In this report, a patient with initial bone height of 2 to 3 mm in the extracted site of #3 was treated with the 2-stage osteotome technique. In the first stage, the sinus floor was grafted and augmented up to 5 to 6 mm. In the second stage, 9 months later, the same area was regrafted and the implant was placed. Eight months after the second stage, radiographs showed the entire 10-mm length of the implant was covered with new bone and the implant was solid and functional.

Sinus grafting using recombinant human tissue factor, platelet-rich plasma gel, autologous bone, and anorganic bovine bone mineral xenograft: histologic analysis and case reports
Philippart, P., V. Daubie, et al. (2005), Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 20(2): 274-81.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze healthy bone formation by means of histology and immunohistochemistry after grafting with a mixture of autologous ground calvarial bone, inorganic xenograft, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and recombinant human tissue factor (rhTF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed on 3 patients by grafting with 5 to 10 mL of a paste consisting of autologous powder from calvarial bone (diameter < 1 mm), 50% v/v anorganic bovine bone mineral xenograft (PepGen P-15, a new tissue-engineered bone replacement graft material), PRP (1.8 x 10(6) platelets/mm3 plasma), and about 1 microg rhTF. Six and 10 months after grafting, bone cores were extracted for implant fixation and analyzed. RESULTS: Histology demonstrated a high degree of inorganic xenograft integration and natural bone regeneration. Both the xenograft and newly synthesized bone were colonized with osteocytes and surrounded by osteoblasts. Six-month-old bone cores demonstrated a ratio of synthesized bone to xenograft particles ratio of 0.5, whereas 10-month-old cores demonstrated a ratio of 2. A low degree of inflammation could also be observed using S100A8 immunohistochemistry. DISCUSSION: Autologous grafting in edentulous patients is a complex procedure; the successful substitution of synthetic analogs for ground bone is a major challenge. CONCLUSION: In this investigation, it was shown that inorganic xenograft in the harvested bone paste could be safe for patients and had high bone regeneration capacity over time. The sinus graft showed intense bone formation 6 months after grafting and a further increase in bone growth 10 months after grafting.

Sirolimus- and taxol-eluting stents differ towards intimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization
Liuzzo, J. P., J. A. Ambrose, et al. (2005), J Invasive Cardiol 17(9): 497-502.
Abstract: Restenosis is a direct result of vessel injury, local inflammation, and remodeling following balloon angioplasty and coronary stenting resulting in luminal narrowing. The process involves a complex interplay of released growth factors that stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to migrate and proliferate, as well as activating endothelial cells (ECs) at injury sites. The latter re-establishes the luminal endothelial monolayer that keeps a barrier to circulating cells from underlying extracellular matrix and SMCs. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization is important in that uncontrolled cellular processes account for coronary luminal narrowing, leading to the recurrence of clinical symptoms, hospitalizations, and repeat interventions. The evolution of drug-eluting stents that inhibit intimal hyperplasia has revolutionized percutaneous coronary interventions in that potential late luminal narrowing is attenuated. Sirolimus and paclitaxel are two medications utilized for their efficacy at inhibiting intimal hyperplasia and subsequent clinical events. The effects of these drugs on EC biology have not been well investigated. This article discusses basic cellular processes of vessel repair after balloon angioplasty and stenting, and focuses on the differential molecular mechanisms of sirolimus and paclitaxel towards proliferation and migration. These drugs inhibit both SMC and EC proliferation, but by different mechanisms, and paclitaxel inhibits EC migration, whereas sirolimus does not. Their discriminating effects towards re-endothelialization may clinically differentiate these two drugs. Inhibiting re-endothelialization may translate into more adverse clinical events.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006