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Production of mesoscopically patterned cellulose film
Nemoto, J., Y. Uraki, et al. (2005), Bioresour Technol 96(17): 1955-8.
Abstract: Honeycomb and stripe patterned films were prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA)/chloroform solution, as a result of the self-organization of the polymer during evaporation of the solvent. The honeycomb patterned CTA films were prepared by two methods, a direct pattern formation method and a transcription method. The latter method gave a well-organized microporous honeycomb pattern. Both types of patterned CTA films were saponified to yield the corresponding patterned cellulose films.

Production of monoclonal antibodies to study corrosion products of CO-CR biomaterials
Yang, J. and K. Merritt (1996), J Biomed Mater Res 31(1): 71-80.
Abstract: Sensitivity to nickel, cobalt, and chromium is common among the general population. The identification of these sensitivities is generally by the detection of cell-mediated immunity. We have reported previously the use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to quantitate metal-specific antibodies in patients with total joint replacements. To study the haptenic potential of these metal ions, rabbit albumin-glutathione-metal complexes with chromium, cobalt, or nickel were injected into mice. The splenocytes from one mouse in each group which developed a strong antibody against GSH-metal complexes were isolated and fused with myeloma cells to produce monoclonal antibodies. Chromium, cobalt, and nickel antibodies had similar affinity and bound with the specific GSH-metal complex. There was very little cross-reactivity between these antibodies. An inhibition assay using these monoclonal antibodies was demonstrated to be a simple technique, suitable for quantitation of free metal in solution.

Professor Bamford's research in the field of biomaterials
Middleton, I. P., K. G. Al-Lamee, et al. (2000), J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 11(12): 1287-306.
Abstract: Professor Bamford was regarded by many as the greatest British polymer chemist of the twentieth century and when Bam passed away in November 1999 tribute was quite rightly made to his considerable achievements in the field of polymer science. The aim of this paper is to highlight Bam's contribution to biomaterials research that occupied his attention for over 15 years after his official retirement. In particular a review of the synthetic methods employed by Bam for the modification of polymers to improve haemocompatibility and to function as affinity separation membranes for protein purification is presented.

Prognostic factors for alveolar regeneration: effect of a space-providing biomaterial on guided tissue regeneration
Polimeni, G., K. T. Koo, et al. (2004), J Clin Periodontol 31(9): 725-9.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: There is a limited understanding of the effect of bone biomaterials on the healing potential when used in conjunction with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a space-providing coral-derived biomaterial on alveolar bone regeneration in conjunction with GTR. METHODS: Bilateral, critical-size, 6-mm, supra-alveolar, periodontal defects were created in four young adult Beagle dogs. In a split-mouth design, the animals received an ePTFE device to provide for GTR in contralateral defect sites with or without the coral biomaterial. The animals were euthanized at 4 weeks post surgery. A histometric analysis assessed vertical regeneration of alveolar bone relative to space-provision by the ePTFE device. Because of the correlation of within-dog measurements, a mixed model ANOVA was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There was significantly greater mean bone regeneration in sites receiving calcium carbonate coral implant GTR (cGTR) compared to GTR (p < 0.0001). Sites providing larger wound areas exhibited greater bone regeneration compared to sites exhibiting smaller wound areas (p < 0.0001). However, grouping the sites by wound area thresholds showed that bone regeneration was not significantly different in sites receiving cGTR compared to sites receiving GTR alone, irrespective of the size of the wound area (p > 0.5). Conclusions: Space-provision has a significant effect on bone regeneration following GTR. The coral biomaterial effectively enhances space-provision, and this appears to be the principal mechanism by which this biomaterial supports bone regeneration rather than postulated osteoconductive properties.

Programmable elution profile coating for drug eluting stents
Al-Lamee, K. (2005), Med Device Technol 16(2): 12-5.
Abstract: Despite good results in reducing in-stent restenosis during cardiac stenting procedures, a number of issues in the application of drug-eluting stents still challenge the industry.These include drug-elution kinetics and long-term biocompatibility. Some of the latest developments in these areas are described here.

Progress towards seamless tissue fusion for wound closure
Flock, S. T. and K. S. Marchitto (2005), Otolaryngol Clin North Am 38(2): 295-305.
Abstract: Tissue fusion shows great promise in creating the ideal wound closure;however devices and materials are still at an early stage of development.Energy-based closure methods, such as laser tissue welding, have proven that a thermal-mediated tissue fusion can result in a closure that is physiologically and mechanically seamless, and has sufficient tensile strength.However, the techniques are not easily reproducible and are not cost effective, and therefore they are not gaining wide acceptance. Nevertheless,the work of the scientists who have been exploring tissue welding has laid the foundation for more rapid development of new systems that can deliver energy more efficiently and with greater control. Some additional energy-based systems are available or are being developed that show great promise;however, clinical efficacy has yet to be demonstrated.

Progression of experimental chronic peri-implantitis in dogs: clinical and radiographic evaluation
Martins, M. C., J. A. Shibli, et al. (2005), J Periodontol 76(8): 1367-73.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression of experimental peri-implantitis in dogs using implants with different surface coatings. METHODS: Thirty-six dental implants with four different surface coatings, commercially pure titanium (cpTi), titanium plasma sprayed (TPS), hydroxyapatite (HA), and acid-etched (AE), were placed in six mongrel dogs. Five months after implantation, peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures to facilitate plaque accumulation for 60 days. After 60 days, the ligatures were removed and supragingival plaque control was initiated for 12 months. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), vertical bone level (VBL), horizontal bone level (HBL), and mobility were obtained at baseline, and 20, 40, 60 (acute phase), and 425 days (chronic phase) after ligature removal. RESULTS: PD and CAL changed around all implant surfaces after ligature placement (P<0.0001). However, the means of PD and CAL were not statistically significant among the different surfaces (P>0.05). The range of CAL variation, calculated between baseline and 60 days (acute phase) and between 60 and 425 days (chronic phase), decreased (P<0.05). Bone loss increased during the entire experiment (P<0.0001). The HA surface showed the greatest bone loss measurement (5.06+/- 0.38 mm) and the TPS showed the smallest bone loss (4.27+/- 0.62 mm). However, statistical significance was not assessed for different coatings (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical data at the initial phase showed rapid and severe peri-implant tissue breakdown. However, removal of ligatures did not convert the acute destructive peri-implant phase to a non-aggressive lesion and the progression of peri-implantitis was observed at chronic phase. The experimental peri-implantitis in dogs may be a useful model to evaluate the progression of peri-implantitis.

Proinflammatory phenotype of endothelial cells after coculture with biomaterial-treated blood cells
Lester, E. A. and J. E. Babensee (2003), J Biomed Mater Res A 64(3): 397-410.
Abstract: An understanding of the endothelial cell/blood/biomaterial interactions is central to advancing the success of cardiovascular devices that continue to fail because of the lack of nonthrombogenic biomaterials. A simplified endothelial cell/blood cell/biomaterial static model was used to assess these interactions. Human whole blood or isolated blood cells (mononuclear cells, neutrophils, platelets) were pretreated with biomaterial beads with different surface chemistries: polystyrene (PS), PS beads grafted with 3-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) with either hydroxyl (PS-PEG-OH) or amine (PS-PEG-NH2) terminal groups at bead concentrations of 5.4 or 54 x 10(4) beads/mL. Leukocyte and platelet activation and microparticle formation was assessed using flow cytometry. Biomaterial-activated whole blood or isolated cells or mononuclear cell fractions were applied to human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) for static coculture, and the resultant proinflammatory HUVEC phenotype was characterized. ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression on HUVEC was increased after 4-h static coculture with biomaterial-treated human whole blood or mononuclear cells but not neutrophils or platelets. VCAM-1 expression on HUVEC was similarly increased after 24-h static coculture but not after 4 h of coculture. Increased concentrations of cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, were detected in the supernatant of cocultures of HUVEC with biomaterial-treated whole blood or mononuclear cells but not neutrophils or platelets, compared with the media control. After 24 h, cytokine release was significantly increased for both IL-8 and MCP-1 but not IL-6 above concentrations after 4 h of coculture. Neither the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression nor cytokine release induced by coculture with biomaterial-treated whole blood or isolated cells was dependent on either material surface chemistry or material surface area. The changes in HUVEC CAM expression and cytokine release induced by biomaterial-treated mononuclear cells can be attributed predominantly to adherent cells on beads and nonadherent bulk cells with moderate regulation by the soluble supernatant; however, mononuclear cell-derived microparticles induced no significant changes in CAM expression or cytokine release after static coculture with HUVEC.

Proliferation and differentiation of cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on surface-layer modified hydroxyapatite ceramic with acid and heat treatments
Yuasa, T., Y. Miyamoto, et al. (2005), Dent Mater J 24(2): 207-12.
Abstract: Effects of functionally gradient calcium phosphate consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 cells. There were no significant differences in the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells among HAP-alpha-TCP functionally gradient calcium phosphate, pure HAP, and cell culture plastic wells. mRNA expressions of type I collagen, alkaline phosphate, and osteocalcine were evaluated as indexes of initial; mid-stage, and late-stage osteoblastic differentiation. Basically, HAP-alpha-TCP functionally gradient calcium phosphate and pure HAP enhanced the expressions of the three markers when compared with that of cell culture plastic wells. For type I collagen and alkaline phosphate expressions, HAP-alpha-TCP functionally gradient calcium phosphate showed the same expression level as pure HAP. For osteocalcine expression, HAP-alpha-TCP functionally gradient calcium phosphate showed a higher level than pure HAP. We concluded, therefore, HAP-alpha-TCP functionally gradient calcium phosphate has good potential to be a bone filler material with high osteoconductivity.

Proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic germ cell derivatives in bioactive polymeric fibrous scaffold
Yim, E. K. and K. W. Leong (2005), J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 16(10): 1193-217.
Abstract: Human embryonic germ cell derivatives, a heterogeneous population of uncommitted embryoid body derived (EBD) cells, were studied in a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) fibrous culture. Their proliferation, morphology, gene expression and differentiation were investigated to gain insights on development of 3D bioactive scaffold for pluripotent stem cells. The expansion of the EBD cells in 3D environment was significantly higher than their two-dimensional controls after 21 days. No apparent differentiation of the EBD cells cultured in the 3D environment, as indicated by histology and gene expression profile analysis, was evident. Extracellular matrix production was weak in the long-term 3D culture, and the EBD cells maintained their multilineage gene expressions for the period studied. When nerve growth factor (NGF) was surface-immobilized on the fibrous scaffold via chemically-modified Pluronic, the EBD cells cultured in this scaffold showed evidence of entering the neural pathway. An upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression was observed when EBD cells were cultured in the NGF-immobilized fibrous scaffold, as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. The study suggests the value of such fibrous 3D culture in manipulating stem cell proliferation/differentiation and as a model for developing a bioactive scaffold.

Proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells on poly(glycolic acid)-collagen sponge
Fujita, M., Y. Kinoshita, et al. (2005), Tissue Eng 11(9-10): 1346-55.
Abstract: We studied the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs), using three scaffolds: collagen sponge, poly(glycolic acid) (PGA)-collagen sponge, and PGA-collagen (UV) sponge. RBMSCs were seeded into the sponges, and cultured in primary medium, primary medium with Dex, and primary medium with bFGF and Dex. Three weeks after cultivation, we examined alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cell number in the sponges, and also performed macroscopic, light microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations. Collagen sponge shrank considerably, but PGA-collagen and PGA-collagen (UV) sponges maintained most of their original shape. PGA-collagen (UV) sponge supplemented with bFGF and Dex together had the highest ALP activity and cell number, followed by PGA-collagen sponge. Although collagen sponge showed cell proliferation only on the surface, the other two sponges showed cell proliferation in the interior. SEM showed the best cell attachment to PGA-collagen (UV) sponge in the presence of bFGF and Dex, followed by PGA-collagen sponge. In conclusion, PGA-collagen (UV) and PGA-collagen sponges proved to be much more useful as scaffolding for bone regeneration when combined with bFGF and Dex.

Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells cultured onto three different polymers in vitro
Jager, M., T. Feser, et al. (2005), Ann Biomed Eng 33(10): 1319-32.
Abstract: In this study, the osteoinductive and cell-binding properties of three different resorbable polymers were evaluated by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were isolated, expanded, and cultivated onto resorbable D,D,L,L-polylactide (PLLA), collagen I/III, and polygalactin-910/polydioxanone (PGPD) scaffolds in vitro. To evaluate the influence of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and beta-glycerolphosphate (DAG) on osteoblast differentiation, MSCs were incubated in a DAG-enriched medium. After a 28-day period in vitro, the cellular loaded polymers were digested enzymatically by papain and HCl. The Ca(2+) content of the biomembranes was evaluated by an o-kresolphthalein-complexon reaction via photometer. A PicoGreen assay was performed for dsDNA quantification. Significant differences between the number of adherent MSCs were documented (collagen > PLLA > PGPD). Compared to the initial number of adherent cells, all biomaterials induced a significant decrease in cellular adherence after 28 days in vitro. The presence of DAG-enriched culture medium stimulated the cellular proliferation for PLLA and slightly for PGPD, whereas cell proliferation was inhibited when MSCs were cultivated onto collagen I/III. In comparison with the control groups, all biomaterials (PLLA, PGPD, and collagen I/III) showed a significant increase in local Ca(2+) accumulation under DAG stimulation after 28 days in vitro. Furthermore, collagen I/III and PLLA scaffolds showed osteoinductive properties without DAG stimulation. These results were verified by immunocytochemical stainings against osteoblast-typical markers (osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase) and completed by calcified matrix detection (von Kossa staining). MSCs were identified by CD105 and CD13 antigen expression. Corresponding to an absence of CD34, CD45, and collagen II expression, we found no chondrogenic or hematopoietic cell differentiation. The results indicate significant differences for the proliferation, differentiation, adherence, and Ca(2+) accumulation between the tested polymers in a MSC culture.

Proliferation and phenotypic preservation of rat parotid acinar cells
Chen, M. H., R. S. Chen, et al. (2005), Tissue Eng 11(3-4): 526-34.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop an initial step in salivary gland tissue engineering through proliferation and phenotypic preservation of rat parotid acinar cells in vitro. By using the explant outgrowth technique and M199 medium with the addition of sialic acid, acinar cells not only survived for more than 30 days in the absence of basement membrane substrates but also proliferated to yield cells with acinar phenotypic expression. Furthermore, we tested whether chitosan can be used as a synthetic extracellular matrix to culture salivary acinar cells. Chitosan is a deacetylated product of chitin, which is a plentiful polysaccharide found in nature and is safe for the human body, but little is known about the utility of chitosan in culturing salivary acinar cells. It was found that coating fibronectin on chitosan membrane improved the attachment of acinar cells in the initial stage. However, the poor attachment of acinar cells on pure chitosan membrane did not affect cell growth after longer culture times, indicating that chitosan is potentially useful as a tissue-engineering scaffold of the salivary gland. These in vitro results are encouraging because such a culture system may serve as an artificial salivary gland for future use in the treatment of patients with salivary hypofunction.

Proliferative and re-defferentiative effects of photo-immobilized micro-patterned hyaluronan surfaces on chondrocyte cells
Barbucci, R., P. Torricelli, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(36): 7596-605.
Abstract: A photo-immobilisation procedure was utilised to create two different micro-patterned surfaces (tracks 25 and 5 microm wide) of hyaluronan (Hyal) on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) previously plasma activated. Aim of the study was to investigate the proliferation and re-differentiation capacity of articular chondrocytes cultured on micro-patterned Hyal, compared to homogeneous Hyal and plain plasma-treated (pt-)PET substrates. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, activation and differentiation of articular knee cartilage chondrocytes (Mongrel sheep) were evaluated after 14 days of culture. It was found that micro-patterned Hyal surfaces induced the adhesion, migration and alignment of chondrocytes, as shown by light and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the same surfaces induced chondrocyte differentiation, with a significant increase of aggrecan and collagen type II production, while homogeneous Hyal and pt-PET surfaces did not.

Prolonged duration local anesthesia with lipid-protein-sugar particles containing bupivacaine and dexamethasone
Colombo, G., R. Padera, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(2): 458-64.
Abstract: Glucocorticoids prolong block duration from polymeric microspheres containing bupivacaine, but not from unencapsulated drug. Here we investigate this effect applies to particles with much more rapid drug release and improved long-term biocompatibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given sciatic nerve blocks with 75 mg of 3% or 60% (w/w) dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) spray-dried lipid-protein-sugar particles (LPSPs) containing 10% (w/w) bupivacaine and 0%, 0.05%, or 0.1% (w/w) dexamethasone. Sensory nerve block from bupivacaine-containing 3% and 60% (w/w) DPPC particles without dexamethasone yielded blocks lasting 301 +/- 56 and 321 +/- 127 min, respectively. Addition of 0.05% (w/w) dexamethasone increased block durations to 610 +/- 182 and 538 +/- 222 min, respectively; increasing dexamethasone loading to 0.1% did not further increase duration. One day after injection, dexamethasone-containing particles resulted in lower inflammation scores and capsule thickness than dexamethasone-free particles, but the difference was gone by day 4. Excipient composition had prominent effects at all time points. For all groups, inflammation was largely resolved by 2 weeks after injection. Dexamethasone approximately doubled the duration of nerve block from bupivacaine-loaded LPSPs, while maintaining excellent biocompatibility. Such formulations could be useful in clinical applications when nerve blockade is needed for 24 hours or less.

Promotion of bone formation by simvastatin in polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis
von Knoch, F., C. Wedemeyer, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(29): 5783-9.
Abstract: The effects of statins on bone formation in periprosthetic osteolysis have not been determined to date. We investigated the effect of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin on osteoblastic bone formation under conditions of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particle-induced osteolysis. The murine calvarial osteolysis model was utilized in 21 C57BL/J6 mice randomized to three groups. Group I underwent sham surgery only, group II received UHMWPE particles, and group III, particles and simvastatin treatment. After 2 weeks, calvaria were processed for histomorphometry and stained with Giemsa dye. New bone formation was measured as osteoid tissue area within the midline suture. Bone thickness was quantified as indicator of net bone growth. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and a Student's t-test. New bone formation and bone thickness were significantly enhanced following simvastatin treatment. New bone formation was 0.008+/-0.008 mm2 in sham controls (group I), 0.015+/-0.012 mm2 after particle implantation without further intervention (group II), compared to 0.083+/-0.021 mm2 with particle implantation and simvastatin treatment (group III) (p=0.003). The bone thickness was 0.213+/-0.007 mm in group I, 0.183+/-0.005 mm in group II, and 0.238+/-0.009 mm in group III (p=0.00008). In conclusion, simvastatin treatment markedly promoted bone formation and net bone growth in UHMWPE particle-induced osteolysis in a murine calvarial model. These new findings indicate that simvastatin may have favorable osteoanabolic effects on wear debris-mediated osteolysis after total joint arthroplasty, involving local stimulation of osteoblastic bone formation.

Promotion of monolayer formation and high expression of ammonia metabolism of primary rat hepatocytes on arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptide-coated polystyrene dish
Ijima, H. and K. Kawakami (2005), J Biosci Bioeng 100(1): 62-6.
Abstract: Cell adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was immobilized using ProNectin F (PnF) on a nontreated polystyrene petri dish at a PnF density of 20 ng cm(-2), which is sufficient for primary rat hepatocyte immobilization. The density of PnF on the dish affects cell morphology and expression of the differentiated functions within the range of 2-2500 ng cm(-2). An optimal monolayer state with defined cell boundaries and hepatocyte nuclei was formed on a 2500 ng cm(-2) PnF-coated petri dish, and the ammonia metabolic function was expressed at as high a level as in the hepatocyte/spheroid. We conclude that 2500 ng cm(-2) PnF enhances the morphological stability and expression of liver-specific functions of the hepatocyte.

Properties and performance of sulfide-substituted plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) as a biomaterial
Lakshmi, S. and A. Jayakrishnan (2003), J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 65(1): 204-10.
Abstract: Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulfide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst (PTC) to make it migration resistant. The modified PVC was sterilized by steam autoclaving and gamma radiation and subjected to plasticizer extraction in an extraction medium such as hexane. Virtually no plasticizer migrated out of modified PVC into the medium even after prolonged incubation for 30 d. The properties of the modified surface were evaluated by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell-culture studies, hemolysis assay, and whole-blood clotting time measurements. The mechanical properties of modified sheets were evaluated by measurements of tensile strength and strain at break after subjecting the specimens to different modes of sterilization. The modified PVC surface showed enhanced wettability and was found to be non-hemolytic and non-cytotoxic. Whole-blood clotting profiles of unmodified and modified PVC were virtually the same. Modification imparted slight yellow color to the material. Surface modification resulted in an 8% decrease in the ultimate stress and 28% decrease in the strain at break values. The sulfide-substituted PVC was found to be blood compatible and would be useful in applications such as tubing for transfusion, dialysis etc., where migration resistance is important.

Properties of Bacillus cereus and other bacilli contaminating biomaterial-based industrial processes
Pirttijarvi, T. S., M. A. Andersson, et al. (2000), Int J Food Microbiol 60(2-3): 231-9.
Abstract: This paper is an overview on bacilli in industrial processes, with focus on food grade paper and paperboard production. Paperboards mainly contain sporeforming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus, usually found in quantities from < 50 to 250 cfu g(-1) homogenized paperboard. Of those frequently found, Bacillus cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and Brevibacillus brevis are important for food hygiene because of their hydrolytic activities on food components and the ability of some strains to produce food poisoning toxins or to grow at refrigerated temperatures. We found that the phenotypic properties (lecithinase activity, nitrate reduction) used in standard methods (e.g., ISO, FDA, IDF) to recognize B. cereus, were unreliable for industrial isolates. Whole cell fatty acid composition of a group of the industrial isolates deviated so much from those in a widely used commercial database that the strains were not or only poorly recognized as B. cereus. Industrial isolates, including toxigenic ones, often missed one or more of these characters, even in cases where 100% 16S rDNA identity was found with B. cereus or with B. thuringiensis. 11-Methyldodecanoic acid and trans-9-hexadecenoic acid were found without exception in over 200 industrial B. cereus group isolates and in over 30 culture collection strains. The detection of these fatty acids is a secure method for the identification of B. cereus. Negative reaction for starch hydrolysis and for BCET-RPLA test and a specific ribotype were found in all B. cereus strains producing the emetic toxin.

Properties of biomaterials
Lemons, J. E. and L. C. Lucas (1986), J Arthroplasty 1(2): 143-7.
Abstract: Metallic biomaterials, including iron-, cobalt-, and titanium-based systems, have a long history of applications for surgical implant devices. The mechanical properties of these alloys (modulus, strength, and ductility) have been used to make devices to replace skeletal structures with long-term in vivo stabilities. In addition, the passive surface oxide layers have provided chemical inertness within biologic environments. Recent trends to provide porous metallic conditions for biologic ingrowth and fixation have introduced questions with regard to the relative strength and biodegradation properties. Some biomaterial strengths have been reduced to magnitudes less than 50% of the nonporous alloys, which emphasizes the criticality of design. Surface area increases of 3-10 times has emphasized biocorrosion magnitudes, the elements released to the tissues, and the biologic consequences of these products. This article provides a brief review of these issues with emphasis on mechanical-biomechanical and chemical-biochemical properties of metallic alloys.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006