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Preparation and characterization of Mitomycin-C loaded chitosan-coated alginate microspheres for chemoembolization
Misirli, Y., E. Ozturk, et al. (2005), J Microencapsul 22(2): 167-78.
Abstract: Mitomycin-C loaded and chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were prepared for use in chemoembolization studies. In this respect, first alginate microspheres were prepared by using a spraying method using an extrusion device with a small orifice and following suspension cross-linking in an oil phase. Chitosan-coating onto the alginate microspheres was achieved by polyionic complex formation between alginate and chitosan. CaCl(2) was used as a cross-linker for alginate microspheres. The obtained chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were spherical shaped and approximately 100-400 microm average size. The microspheres were evaluated based on their swellability and the swelling ratio was changed between 50-280%. CaCl(2) concentration, stirring rate, chitosan molecular weight, chitosan concentration and time for coating with chitosan were selected as the effective parameters on microsphere size and swelling ratio. Equilibrium swellings were achieved in approximately 30 min. On the other hand, chitosan molecular weight, chitosan concentration and time for coating with chitosan were found as the most effective parameters on both drug loading ratio and release studies. Maximum drug loading ratio of 65% was achieved with high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan, highest chitosan concentration (i.e. 1.0% v/v) and shortest time for coating with chitosan (i.e. 1 h) values.

Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite scaffolds
Kong, L., Y. Gao, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(2): 275-82.
Abstract: A novel nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan composite scaffold with high porosity was developed. The nano-HA particles were made in situ through a chemical method and dispersed well on the porous scaffold. They bound to the chitosan scaffolds very well. This method prevents the migration of nano-HA particles into surrounding tissues to a certain extent. The morphologies, components, and biocompatibility of the composite scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the composite scaffolds. The biocompatibility was assessed by examining the proliferation and morphology of MC 3T3-E1 cells seeded on the scaffolds. The composite scaffolds showed better biocompatibility than pure chitosan scaffolds. The results suggest that the newly developed nano-HA/chitosan composite scaffolds may serve as a good three-dimensional substrate for cell attachment and migration in bone tissue engineering.

Preparation and characterization of novel silica-butyrylchitosan hybrid biomaterials
Zhu, A. P., Z. Zhang, et al. (2003), J Mater Sci Mater Med 14(1): 27-31.
Abstract: Novel silica-butyrylchitosan hybrid biomaterials were produced by a sol-gel technique, using butyrylchitosan as the organic species incorporated into the silicon alkoxide (TEOS) based network. 3-acryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was used effectively to combine the organic and inorganic species to form uniform hybrid biomaterials. All the samples made were in the form of thin, flexible films with transparent clarity. The blood-clotting and platelet adhesion assay confirmed that these hybrid biomaterials displayed potential good blood compatibility.

Preparation and characterization of overcoated II-VI quantum dots
Xie, H. Y., J. G. Liang, et al. (2005), J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5(6): 880-6.
Abstract: A convenient route for the synthesis of high-quality overcoated II-VI quantum dots (QDs) is reported in this paper. Simple salts, such as Cd(Ac)2 and Zn(Ac)2 were used to replace organometallics, whose disadvantage is obvious. Size-tunable core/shell structured QDs (CdSe/ZnS, CdSe/CdS, etc.) were synthesized. They were of narrow size distribution and had good monodispersivity and photoluminescence (PL) properties. The spectrum was symmetrical and sharp-pointed (with the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of about 20-30 nm). The quantum yield (QY) was improved to 60-80% from 20-30% for bare QDs and remained stable at least for 6 months. The primary overcoated QDs were modified with biomacromolecules by a direct mechanical rubbing strategy, which is very simple and fast. The results obtained by UV-vis, PL, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that the modified QDs were of good fluorescent and monodisperse characteristics. They are likely to be used further for biological labels.

Preparation and characterization of polymeric coatings with combined nitric oxide release and immobilized active heparin
Zhou, Z. and M. E. Meyerhoff (2005), Biomaterials 26(33): 6506-17.
Abstract: A new dual acting polymeric coating is described that combines nitric oxide (NO) release with surface-bound active heparin, with the aim of mimicking the nonthrombogenic properties of the endothelial cell (EC) layer that lines the inner wall of healthy blood vessels. A trilayer membrane configuration is employed to create the proposed blood compatible coating. A given polymeric substrate (e.g., the outer surface of a catheter sleeve, etc.) is first coated with a dense polymer layer, followed by a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) or polyurethane (PU) layer doped with a lipophilic N-diazeniumdiolate as the NO donor species. Finally, an outer aminated polymer layer is applied. Porcine heparin is then covalently linked to the outer layer via formation of amide bonds. The surface-bound heparin is shown to possess anti-coagulant activity in the range of 4.80-6.39 mIU/cm2 as determined by a chromogenic anti-Factor Xa assay. Further, the surface NO flux from the underlying polymer layer containing the diazeniumdiolate species can be controlled and maintained at various levels (from 0.5 to 60 x 10(-10) mol cm(-2)min(-1)) for at least 24 h and up to 1 week (depending on the flux level desired) by changing the chemical/polymer composition of the NO release layer. The proposed polymeric coatings are capable of functioning by two complementary anti-thrombotic mechanisms, one based on the potent anti-platelet activity of NO, and the other the result of the ability of immobilized heparin to inhibit Factor Xa and thrombin (Factor IIa). Thus, the proposed polymeric coatings are expected to exhibit greatly enhanced thromboresistivity compared to polymers that utilize either immobilized heparin or NO release alone.

Preparation and characterization of porous beta-tricalcium phosphate/collagen composites with an integrated structure
Zou, C., W. Weng, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(26): 5276-84.
Abstract: Porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen composites with different beta-TCP/collagen weight ratio were prepared. The influences of the preparation conditions on the microstructure of porous composite and the joint status of beta-TCP particles with collagen fibrils were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed: (1) an acid treatment could effectively disassemble collagen fibrils; (2) in the resulting porous composites, beta-TCP particles homogenously existed on the skeleton of the collagen fibril network and bonded tightly to both the fibrils and themselves. The tight bonding formation could be due to the reaction between Ca ions in the particles and carboxyl groups in collagen polypeptide chains and due to the reprecipitation of partially dissolved beta-TCP during synthesis. The tight bonding between beta-TCP particles and collagen fibrils in the composites demonstrated an integrated structure, which was reproducible when beta-TCP/collagen ratio ranged from 2 to 4. Such integrated structure would make significant contributions in reliably tailoring properties of the porous composites by varying beta-TCP content. In addition, the porous composites had large porosity (approximately 95%) and appropriate pore size (approximately 100 microm), showed no negative impact in cytotoxicity assay and complete bone tissue regeneration after 12 weeks in animal test.

Preparation and characterization of visible-light-active nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalyst
Huang, X. H., Y. C. Tang, et al. (2005), J Environ Sci (China) 17(4): 562-5.
Abstract: A visible-light photocatalyst was prepared by calcination of the hydrolysis product of Ti(SO4)2 with ammonia as precipitator. The color of this photocatalyst was vivid yellow. It could absorb light under 550 nm wavelength. The crystal structure of anatase was characterized by XRD. The structure analysis result of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) shows that doped-nitrogen was presented in the sample. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated using methyl orange and phenol as model pollutants. The photocatalytic activities of samples were increasing gradually with calcination temperature from 400 degrees C to 700 degrees C under UV irradiation. It can be seen that the degradation of methyl orange follows zero-order kinetics. However, the calcination temperatures have no significant influence on the degradation of phenol under sunlight. The N-doped catalyst shows higher activity than the bare one under solar irradiation.

Preparation and evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol-co-oleylvinyl ether derivatives as tumor-specific cytotoxic systems
Orienti, I., G. Zuccari, et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(5): 2875-80.
Abstract: A series of poly(vinyl alcohol) amphiphilic derivatives have been prepared to obtain polymeric aggregates in aqueous phase holding thermodynamic instability. The aim was to evaluate their ability to interact with tumor cells eliciting selective cytotoxicity. The poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives were prepared by partial substitution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (MW 10 kDa) with both oleyl chains and poly(ethylene glycol) monoethyl ethers (PEGMEE) of different molecular weights. The substitution degree was 1.5% for the oleyl chains and 1% for the PEGMEE chains (moles of substituent per 100 mol of hydroxyvinyl monomer). The polyvinyl derivatives obtained easily dissolved in water. Dynamic and static light scattering measurements on the polymer aqueous solutions indicated the formation of polymeric aggregates characterized by low polydispersity (0.232-0.299) and mean size (218-382 nm) in the range suitable for intravenous administration. Moreover, they were characterized by different packing densities and thermodynamic instabilities driving the polymers to interact with hydrophobic membranes. Among the analyzed polymers, the poly(vinyl alcohol)-co-oleylvinyl ether substituted with triethylene glycol monoethyl ether (P10(4)) provided in solution the highest affinity for hydrophobic membranes. P10(4), moreover, was the most cytotoxic toward the tumor cell lines analyzed (neuroblastoma: SH-SY5Y, IMR-32, HTLA-230. melanoma: MZ2-MEL, RPMI7932.), while it did not appreciably alter the viability of the normal resting lymphocytes. The peculiar behavior of the P10(4) aggregates has been correlated to their high thermodynamic instability in solution due to the high packing density that triggers the polymeric aggregates to interact with hydrophobic membranes such as the tumor cell membranes, thus eliciting cytotoxicity.

Preparation and evaluation of the electrospun chitosan/PEO fibers for potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering
Subramanian, A., D. Vu, et al. (2005), J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 16(7): 861-73.
Abstract: Fibrous materials have morphological similarities to natural cartilage extracellular matrix and have been considered as candidate for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we have evaluated a novel electrospun chitosan mat composed of oriented sub-micron fibers for its tensile property and biocompatibility with chondrocytes (cell attachment, proliferation and viability). Scanning electronic microscope images showed the fibers in the electrospun chitosan mats were indeed aligned and there was a slight cross-linking between the parent fibers. The electrospun mats have significantly higher elastic modulus (2.25 MPa) than the cast films (1.19 MPa). Viability of cells on the electrospun mat was 69% of the cells on tissue-culture polystyrene (TCP control) after three days in culture, which was slightly higher than that on the cast films (63% of the TCP control). Cells on the electrospun mat grew slowly the first week but the growth rate increased after that. By day 10, cell number on the electrospun mat was almost 82% that of TCP control, which was higher than that of cast films (56% of TCP). The electrospun chitosan mats have a higher Young's modulus (P < 0.01) than cast films and provide good chondrocyte biocompatibility. The electrospun chitosan mats, thus, have the potential to be further processed into three-dimensional scaffolds for cartilage tissue repair.

Preparation and evaluation of verapamil hydrochloride microcapsules
Mukherjee, B., B. Mahanti, et al. (2005), Am J Ther 12(5): 417-24.
Abstract: Verapamil was encapsulated with ethylcellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate (CA) in various ratios of drug and polymer by the hot melt technique and the prepared microcapsules were evaluated for size range, drug content, drug release profiles, and kinetics of drug release. The microcapsules were compressed into tablets to study the variation of drug release between the 2 types of formulations (ie, microcapsules and tablets). The size analysis of prepared microcapsules was done by a standard sieving method and in vitro dissolution studies were carried out in USP XXI dissolution test apparatus in 0.1 N HCl as dissolution media to study the drug release profiles of the microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy studies were carried out to investigate the surface characteristics of the microcapsules prepared from both type of polymers. Drug release profiles from the compressed non-disintegrating matrix tablets prepared from the microcapsules were also investigated. All the microcapsules were discrete, free flowing, and reproducible with respect to size distribution and drug content. Maximum percentage of the microcapsules belonged to the size range of 35/50. Drug release durations of VERCA1 (drug: CA 3:1), VERCA2 (drug: CA 2:1), and VERCA3 (drug: CA 1:1) microcapsules were extended up to 3, 5, and 6 hours, respectively, and those of VEREC1 (drug: EC 3:1), VEREC2 (drug: EC 2:1), and VEREC3 (drug: EC 1:1) microcapsules were extended up to 4, 5, and 7 hours, respectively. The microcapsules of both types having a drug:polymer ratio of 1:1 had the slowest release rate in their respective categories. The microcapsules were compressed into nondisintegrating matrix tablets. The hardness of the tablets was tested using the Monsanto Hardness Tester and was found to be 6-7 kg/cm. All the tablets contained the drug verapamil within 100% +/- 5%. The drug release data of both the microcapsules and tablets prepared were examined kinetically, and the ideal kinetic model was determined for the drug release. The tablets prepared by compressing the microcapsule formulations were more satisfactory in releasing the drug at a controlled and uniform rate following Higuchian kinetics and the formulations VCACRT3 and VECCRT3 were able to control release of drug up to 12 hours. Thus, it is possible to formulate a single-unit, controlled-release dosage form of verapamil for oral administration at least once every 12 hours using the polymers CA and EC.

Preparation and important functional properties of water-soluble chitosan produced through Maillard reaction
Chung, Y. C., C. L. Kuo, et al. (2005), Bioresour Technol 96(13): 1473-82.
Abstract: The objective of this research was to improve the solubility of chitosan at neutral or basic pH using the Maillard-type reaction method. To prepare the water-soluble chitosans, various chitosans and saccharides were used under various operating conditions. Biological and physicochemical properties of the chitosan-saccharide derivatives were investigated as well. Results indicated that the solubility of modified chitosan is significantly greater than that of native chitosan, and the chitosan-maltose derivative remained soluble when the pH approached 10. Among chitosan-saccharide derivatives, the solubility of chitosan-fructose derivative was highest at 17.1 g/l. Considering yield, solubility and pH stability, the chitosan-glucosamine derivative was deemed the optimal water-soluble derivative. Compared with the acid-soluble chitosan, the chitosan-glucosamine derivative exhibited high chelating capacity for Zn(2+), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Relatively high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared with native chitosan. Results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced using the Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

Preparation and in vitro anticancer activity of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel and isopropyl myristate
Mo, Y. and L. Y. Lim (2005), J Control Release 107(1): 30-42.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lectin-conjugated isopropyl myristate (IPM)-incorporated PLGA nanoparticle system (NP) for the local delivery of paclitaxel to the lungs. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was conjugated onto preformed IPM- and paclitaxel-loaded PLGA NPs by a two-step carbodiimide method following comparative uptake studies of Concanavalin A, Ricinus communis-120 and WGA on A549, H1299 and CCL-186 cells. WIT-NP with mean diameter of 331 nm and zeta potential of -4.3 mV were prepared with yield of 66% and paclitaxel encapsulation efficiency of 61%. Particle size was expanded by surface conjugation with WGA, while zeta potential was reduced by the addition of IPM and WGA. In vitro paclitaxel release profile was not affected by WGA but initial drug release was enhanced by adding IPM into the formulation. The WIT-NP showed a burst-release of about 32% of the paclitaxel load within the first 5 h followed by a slow zero-order release of another 7% of the drug load in the next 115 h. Compared with the clinical paclitaxel formulation, paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles without IPM or WGA, or paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles with only IPM or WGA, the WIT-NP had superior in vitro cytotoxicity against A549 and H1299 cells. IC50 for WIT-NP after 5 and 24 h incubation with A549 cells were not significantly different (15.5 and 15 microM, respectively) whereas the clinical formulation was not cytotoxic after 5 h but had IC50 of 14 microM after 24 h incubation. WIT-NP exhibited stronger cell-killing effect because of more efficient cellular uptake via WGA-receptor-mediated endocytosis and IPM-facilitated release of paclitaxel from the NPs.

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles containing a caspase inhibitor
Aktas, Y., K. Andrieux, et al. (2005), Int J Pharm 298(2): 378-83.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop a formulation for Z-DEVD-FMK, a peptide which is a caspase inhibitor and has been used in experimental animal studies for a decade. Peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by ionotropic gelation process and Z-DEVD-FMK was quantified by an HPLC method. The influence of the initial peptide concentration on the nanoparticle characteristics and release behavior was evaluated. The CS nanoparticles have a particle diameter (Z-average) ranging from approximately 313-412 nm and a positive zeta potential (20-28 mV). The formulation with the initial peptide concentration of 400 ng/ml provided the highest loading capacity (0.46%) and the highest extent of release (65% at 24 h) suggesting the possibility to achieve a therapeutic dose. According to the data obtained, this chitosan-based nanotechnology opens new and interesting perspectives for anticaspase activity.

Preparation and in vivo evaluation of huperzine A-loaded PLGA microspheres
Fu, X. D., Y. L. Gao, et al. (2005), Arch Pharm Res 28(9): 1092-6.
Abstract: Huperzine A-loaded microspheres composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) were prepared by an ONV emulsion solvent evaporation method. The characterization of the microspheres such as drug loading, size, shape and release profile was described. The in vitro release in the initial 7 days was nearly linear with 10% released per day. Thereafter drug release rate became slow gradually and about 90% drug released at day 21. The in vitro release rate determined by dialysis bag method had a good correlation with the in vivo release rate. Huperzine A aqueous solution was intramuscularly injected (i.m.) at 0.4 mg/kg and microspheres were intramuscularly injected at 8.4 mg eq huperzine A/kg in rats. The maxium plasma concentration (Cmax) after i.m. microspheres was only 32% of that after i.m. solution. Drug in plasma could be detected until day 14 and about 5% of administered dose was residued at the injection site at day 14. The relative bioavailability of huperzine A microspheres over a period of 14 days was 94.7%. Inhibition of acyecholinesterase activity (AchE) in rat's cortex, hippocampus and striatum could sustain for about 14 days. In conclusion, huperzine A-loaded microspheres possessed a prolonged and complete drug release with significant inhibition of AchE for 2 weeks in rats.

Preparation and properties of a biomaterial: HEMA grafted SBS by gamma-ray irradiation
Hsiue, G. H., J. M. Yang, et al. (1988), J Biomed Mater Res 22(5): 405-15.
Abstract: Solvent-cast films of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) were synthesized and a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) layer was grafted onto these films using Co 60 gamma-ray irradiation. The IR absorption spectrum of the graft copolymer was taken and its surface morphology studied by a scanning electron microscope. The degree of grafting and the mechanical properties of SBS, SBS-g-HEMA, and PHEMA were measured. In order to study its biocompatibility, contact angle and blood clotting time experiments were performed. The degree of grafting was related to the soaking time, film thickness and total irradiation dosage. However, it levelled off at 7% when the total dosage reached 1 Mrad. It was found that the mechanical properties of SBS-g-HEMA were the same as those of SBS and were superior to those of PHEMA. The blood compatibility of SBS-g-HEMA as measured by the Lee-White clotting test was better than that of SBS and polystyrene and was quite similar to that of PHEMA.

Preparation of a novel TiO2-based p-n junction nanotube photocatalyst
Chen, Y., J. C. Crittenden, et al. (2005), Environ Sci Technol 39(5): 1201-8.
Abstract: TiO2 nanotube semiconductors contain free spaces in their interior that can be filled with active materials such as chemical compounds, enzymes, and noble metals, giving them a fundamental advantage over colloids. Although the unique shape of semiconductor nanotubes makes them promising for a range of potential applications, significant developmental research is required. In this research, a novel TiO2 nanotube photocatalyst was prepared that has a p-n junction. The photocatalyst particle surface is physically divided into reduction and oxidation surfaces, which poses a potential driving force for the transport of photogenerated charge carriers. The structure of this nanotube catalyst was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The catalyst activity was evaluated by coating the catalyst on HEPA filters and determining the destruction rate of toluene in air. The p-n junction nanotube catalyst was shown to have a much higher photocatalytic destruction rate than that of commercially available, nonnanotube structured material, and a higher destruction rate for nanotube catalysts that did not contain a p-n junction.

Preparation of a reticulated polyurethane foam grafted with poly(acrylic acid) through atmospheric pressure plasma treatment and its lysozyme immobilization
Myung, S. W., Y. H. Yeom, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(8): 745-51.
Abstract: We successfully introduced peroxide groups onto the surface of PU(Polyurethane) foam(10 PPI) through one atmospheric pressure plasma treatment and sequentially grafted PAAc(poly(acrylic acid)) on the surface of PU through radical copolymerization. The plasma treatment can generate large amount of peroxides on the surface of PU foam and the peroxide groups act as initiators for further grafting of PAAc in the monomer solution. To introduce large amount of peroxides on the surface of PU foam, we studied the effect of plasma rf-power and treatment time on the maximum grafting of PAAc. Through this study, we found that the optimum plasma treatment condition was the rf-power of 100 W and the treatment time of 100 s. On the other hand, we also studied the effect of graft reaction conditions such as temperature, monomer concentration and reaction time on the change of grafting degree (GD). The GD increased with increasing temperature and increased with reaction time before it leveled off at 3 h after reaction started. At low concentration of AAc, the GD was very low but it showed a maximum at the monomer concentration between 60 and 70%. The surface of the modified PU foam was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed through the use of FT-IR and weight measurement, respectively. We also observed the surface change before and after plasma induced graft co-polymerization through photo and SEM analysis. Finally, we confirmed that the PU foams grafted with PAAc successfully immobilized lysozyme and other proteins from hen egg white.

Preparation of alpha-cyclodextrin-terminated polyrotaxane consisting of beta-cyclodextrins and pluronic as a building block of a biodegradable network
Ooya, T., A. Ito, et al. (2005), Macromol Biosci 5(5): 379-83.
Abstract: A beta-CD-based biodegradable polyrotaxane was prepared by capping both terminals of polypseudorotaxane consisting of hydrazide-terminated PEG-block-PPG-block-PEG (Pluronic P-105) and beta-CD-succinates with mono-aldehyde alpha-CDs. By decreasing pH, the fluorescent intensity of TNS was increased with time, indicating cleavage of the terminal hydrazone bonds followed by beta-CD-succinate release. The terminal alpha-CD moieties of the polyrotaxane are useful for self-assembled formation with some guest molecules. [Diagram: see text]

Preparation of bovine serum albumin loaded poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres by a modified phase separation technique
Zhang, J. X., K. J. Zhu, et al. (2005), J Microencapsul 22(2): 117-26.
Abstract: BSA-loaded mcirospheres were prepared by a modified phase separation method, in which petroleum ether (PE) containing a certain amount of Span 80 rather than poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was adopted as coacervating agent. Process parameters such as Span 80 concentration, the volume and addition rate of coacervating agent, polymer concentration, agitation rate during the phase separation process and PE type were evaluated to optimize the protein encapsulation. It was found microspheres with high yield (>80.0%) and entrapment efficiency (>90%) could be obtained using PE containing 5.0% Span 80 as the coacervating agent. Microspheres with small particle size (<10 microm) could be produced successfully with appropriate process parameters. In vitro release study suggested that burst release was significantly influenced by Span 80 concentration, polymer concentration and PE type and the burst release could be reduced to <20% with optimized formulation. A biphasic release behavior in vitro test was observed for the microspheres prepared by this method. GC analysis demonstrated that residual solvent of DCM and petroleum ether was decreased dramatically in comparison with PDMS used as a conventional coacervating agent.

Preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan in aqueous solution under microwave irradiation
Ge, H. C. and D. K. Luo (2005), Carbohydr Res 340(7): 1351-6.
Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared by reacting chitosan with chloroacetic acid in water under microwave irradiation. The effect of the reaction conditions was investigated and optimal conditions were identified. The influence of mass ratio of chloroacetic acid to chitosan, microwave power and pH on the degree of substitution or intrinsic viscosity were further studied. The degree of substitution of the carboxymethyl chitosan synthesized exceeded 0.85.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006