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Performance of polyoxymethylene plastic (POM) as a component of a tissue engineering bioreactor
Penick, K. J., L. A. Solchaga, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(1): 168-74.
Abstract: Polyoxymethylene (POM, acetal homopolymer, polyacetal), commercialized as Delrin by DuPont, is an engineering resin with mechanical properties that make it useful for the prototyping and manufacture of laboratory apparatus. These properties include excellent, "metal-like," machining characteristics and dimensional stability, as well as thermal stability, which allows steam sterilization. Historically, POM has been used widely, including as a surgical implant material. For these reasons, we have used this plastic as a media-wetted component in a tissue-engineering bioreactor, with good results. However, a study by LaIuppa et al.5 suggested that POM is unsuitable for use in a cell culture environment (LaIuppa et al. J Biomed Mater Res 1997;36:347-359). POM is based on the polymerization of formaldehyde, and, in addition, contains stabilizers and/or fillers. All of these could potentially be released into the medium, e.g., as formaldehyde or other thermal breakdown products, especially upon repeated autoclaving. The cited report thus appeared plausible, although contrary to our observations. In this study, we specifically assessed whether media conditioned by long-term exposure to machined white POM had a negative effect on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We selected this cell system, as cartilage tissue engineering is the primary application of our bioreactor system. The POM samples were steam-autoclaved 1 to 20 times, to assess the possibility of any toxic thermal breakdown product release into the media. We found that MSCs did not attach directly to machined POM. Because cells that escape from the tissue construct cannot colonize the reactor and compete for nutrients, this is a desirable characteristic of a material used in a tissue-engineering bioreactor. Furthermore, the use of POM-conditioned media had no detectable impact on the proliferation rate of MSCs measured over a one-week period; nor was any effect on chondrogenic differentiation observed at up to 3 weeks in culture. In summary, the use of POM as a culture medium-wetted component appears to be innocuous, at least for human MSCs. The contrast of these findings to those of LaIuppa et al.5 may reflect a cell-type specific sensitivity, or may be due to different handling of the material.

Perfusion culture enhances osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells in collagen sponge reinforced with poly(glycolic Acid) fiber
Hosseinkhani, H., Y. Inatsugu, et al. (2005), Tissue Eng 11(9-10): 1476-88.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to obtain fundamental knowledge about in vitro culture systems to enhance the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen sponge reinforced by the incorporation of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fiber. A collagen solution with PGA fiber homogeneously localized at PGA:collagen weight ratios of 0.67, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 was freezedried, followed by cross-linking of combined dehydrothermal, glutaraldehyde, and ultraviolet treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that collagen sponges exhibited homogeneous and interconnected pore structures with an average size of 180 microm, irrespective of PGA fiber incorporation. When rat MSCs were seeded into collagen sponge with or without PGA fiber incorporation, more attached cells were observed in collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber than in collagen sponge without PGA fiber incorporation, irrespective of the PGA:collagen ratio. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in PGA-reinforced sponge at a weight ratio of 5 were greatly influenced by the culture method and growth conditions. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin content of MSCs cultured in PGA-reinforced sponge by the perfusion method became maximum at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, although they increased with culture time period. It may be concluded that appropriate perfusion conditions enable MSCs to positively improve the extent of proliferation and differentiation.

Pericard: a new biomaterial for tympanoplasty. Preliminary report
Pfaltz, C. R. and C. Griesemer (1985), Am J Otol 6(3): 266-8.

Periimplant soft tissue barrier at experimental one-piece mini-implants with different surface topography in humans: A light-microscopic overview and histometric analysis
Glauser, R., P. Schupbach, et al. (2005), Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 7 Suppl 1: S44-51.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Following connection to the oral cavity, osseointegrated dental implants and surrounding tissues are exposed to microbiologic and biomechanical challenges. The establishment of a firm functional periimplant soft tissue barrier (PSTB) is considered to be important to protect the implant's interface from invasion of bacteria. The current knowledge on the histologic architecture of the PSTB is mainly based on animal experiments. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to histologically characterize the PSTB formed in humans around experimental one-piece mini-implants with different surface topography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients received a total of 12 experimental titanium, one-piece mini-implants with an oxidized (n = 4), an acid-etched (n = 4), or a machined (n = 4) surface distal to therapeutic implants. Following transmucosal healing of 8 weeks and at abutment connection of the regular implants, the mini-implants were harvested with a layer of surrounding hard and soft tissue. The specimens were fixed and processed for histologic sectioning according to standard procedures. The most central bucco-oral section cut in the long axis was used for morphologic analyses of the PSTB. The vertical soft tissue morphology was quantified using histometric measurements. RESULTS: The overall height of the soft tissue, that is, the biologic width, was around 4 to 4.5 mm and consisted of an epithelial and a supracrestal connective tissue barrier. The junctional epithelium established the attachment to the implant surface, whereas the collagen fibers and fibroblasts of the connective tissue seal were oriented parallel to the implant. The epithelial attachment was shorter at the oxidized and acid-etched surfaces compared with the machined surfaces. Accordingly, the oxidized and acid-etched mini-implants exhibited a longer zone of connective tissue seal. CONCLUSION: The periimplant soft tissue formed at the experimental one-piece mini-implants in humans was of a character similar to that described in animal studies. The oxidized and acid-etched implants revealed less epithelial downgrowth and longer connective tissue seal than machined implants.

Periodate oxidation of sodium alginate in water and in ethanol-water mixture: a comparative study
Balakrishnan, B., S. Lesieur, et al. (2005), Carbohydr Res 340(7): 1425-9.
Abstract: Periodate oxidation of sodium alginate in aqueous solution as well as a dispersion in 1:1 ethanol-water was examined. The oxidation proceeded smoothly in both media, and the kinetics of oxidation was surprisingly similar. Polymer cleavage was observed in both media, but it was extensive in ethanol-water. The weight-average molar mass (Mw) of the oxidized product obtained from aqueous solution showed a gradual decrease with increase in the periodate concentration, whereas, except for very high periodate equivalent, the change in Mw was not reflected with increase in concentration of periodate in ethanol-water. The oxidized alginate obtained from the ethanol-water mixture was found to be more efficient in crosslinking proteins such as gelatin, leading to hydrogels. Oxidation of a dispersion has the advantage of generating large quantities of the oxidized alginate in higher yield with one reaction using less solvent.

Periodontal growth factors and tissue carriers: Biocompatibility and mitogenic efficacy in vitro
Cesari, C., M. R. Gatto, et al. (2006), J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 76(1): 15-25.
Abstract: Clinical research has long been testing techniques of integrating biomaterials with many external factors, such as simple proteins or more complicated devices, in order to achieve the restitutio ad integrum of periodontium. This study assessed the in vitro effectiveness of platelet derivate growth factor-BB (PDGF) and insulin growth factor I (IGF); the biocompatibility of materials like Paroguide, Oclastim membranes, Gingistat sponges, Surgiplaster, and Capset; and their efficacy as carriers for the platelet derivate growth factor-BB (PDGF) and insulin growth factor I (IGF). Fibroblasts from the human periodontal ligament were incubated with growth factors free or vehiculated. Mitogenic effect was evaluated by measuring the growth rate and biocompatibility by observing cell morphology at SEM. PDGF was the most effective in stimulating cell proliferation both in solution (p < 0.001) and vehiculated (p < 0.01). Surgiplaster and Capset were more biocompatible; however, final analysis to assess their efficacy as carriers failed to disclose significant differences between experimental findings and control. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2006.

Periodontal healing in one-wall intra-bony defects in dogs following implantation of autogenous bone or a coral-derived biomaterial
Kim, C. S., S. H. Choi, et al. (2005), J Clin Periodontol 32(6): 583-9.
Abstract: AIM: Autogenous bone grafts and bone biomaterials are being used as part of protocols aiming at reconstruction of periodontal defects. There is a limited biologic information on the effect of such materials on periodontal healing, in particular aberrant healing events that may prevent their general use. The objective of this study was, using histological techniques, to evaluate periodontal healing with focus on root resorption and ankylosis following implantation of autogenous bone and a coral-derived biomaterial into intra-bony defects in dogs. METHODS: One-wall intra-bony periodontal defects were surgically created at the distal aspect of the second and the mesial aspect of the fourth mandibular premolars in either right or left jaw quadrants in four Beagle dogs. Each animal received particulated autogenous bone and the resorbable calcium carbonate biomaterial into discrete one-wall intra-bony defects. The mucoperiosteal flaps were positioned and sutured to their pre-surgery position. The animals were euthanized 8 weeks post-surgery when block sections of the defect sites were collected and prepared for qualitative histological analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in periodontal healing between sites receiving autograft bone and the coral-derived biomaterial. A well-organized periodontal ligament bridging new bone and cementum regeneration was observed extending coronal to a notch prepared to delineate the apical extent of the defect. Osteoid and bone with enclosed osteocytes were formed onto the surface of both autograft and coral particles. Although small resorption pits were evident in most teeth, importantly none of the biomaterials provoked marked root resorption. Ankylosis was not observed. CONCLUSION: Particulated autogenous bone and the coral-derived biomaterial may be implanted into periodontal defects without significant healing aberrations such as root resorption and ankylosis. The histopathological evaluation suggests that the autogenous bone graft has a limited osteogenic potential as demonstrated in this study model.

Periodontal regeneration
Wang, H. L., H. Greenwell, et al. (2005), J Periodontol 76(9): 1601-22.
Abstract: Untreated periodontal disease leads to tooth loss through destruction of the attachment apparatus and tooth-supporting structures. The goals of periodontal therapy include not only the arrest of periodontal disease progression,but also the regeneration of structures lost to disease where appropriate. Conventional surgical approaches (e.g., flap debridement) continue to offer time-tested and reliable methods to access root surfaces,reduce periodontal pockets, and attain improved periodontal form/architecture. However, these techniques offer only limited potential towards recovering tissues destroyed during earlier disease phases. Recently, surgical procedures aimed at greater and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissues and functional attachment close to their original level have been developed, analyzed, and employed in clinical practice. This paper provides a review of the current understanding of the mechanisms, cells, and factors required for regeneration of the periodontium and of procedures used to restore periodontal tissues around natural teeth. Targeted audiences for this paper are periodontists and/or researchers with an interest in improving the predictability of regenerative procedures. This paper replaces the version published in 1993.

Periodontal regeneration techniques for treatment of periodontal diseases
Wang, H. L. and J. Cooke (2005), Dent Clin North Am 49(3): 637-59, vii.
Abstract: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of structures lost to disease. Conventional surgical approaches such as open-flap debridement offer only limited regeneration potential.Currently, surgical procedures for predictable regeneration of periodontal tissues are being developed, analyzed, and employed in clinical practice. This article addresses current trends in periodontal regeneration. Various materials/agents such as bone replacement grafts, barrier membranes, and biologic modifiers currently used for the regeneration of periodontal infrabony and furcation defects are discussed.

Periodontal repair in dogs: guided tissue regeneration enhances bone formation in sites implanted with a coral-derived calcium carbonate biomaterial
Koo, K. T., G. Polimeni, et al. (2005), J Clin Periodontol 32(1): 104-10.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that a bioresorbable calcium carbonate coral implant (CI) supports space provision and bone formation for guided tissue regeneration (GTR). However, it could not be discerned whether observed effects were because of GTR or whether the CI possessed osteoconductive properties enhancing bone formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone formation associated with the CI biomaterial in the presence and absence of provisions for GTR. METHODS: Routine, critical size, 6 mm, supra-alveolar periodontal defects were created in 12 young adult Beagle dogs. Five animals received the CI alone (Biocoral 1000). Seven animals received the CI/GTR combination using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier (GORE-TEX Regenerative Material). The animals were euthanized at 4 weeks postsurgery and tissue blocks of the experimental sites were collected and processed for histometric analysis. RESULTS: Clinical healing was uneventful. The histopathologic and histometric analysis revealed significantly increased bone formation (height and area) in sites receiving the CI/GTR combination compared with CI alone (2.3+/-0.6 versus 1.2+/-0.9 mm; and 3.1+/-0.8 versus 1.2+/-1.1 mm2; p<0.05). The CI biomaterial appeared to be mostly unassociated with new bone formation; the CI particles were observed sequestered in newly formed bone, fibrovascular marrow, and in the supra-alveolar connective tissue. Cementum formation was limited and observed in few sites for both treatment protocols. CONCLUSION: While GTR promoted new bone formation, the CI contributed limited, if any, osteoconductive effects.

Periodontal wound healing following GTR therapy of dehiscence-type defects in the monkey: short-, medium- and long-term healing
Graziani, F., L. Laurell, et al. (2005), J Clin Periodontol 32(8): 905-14.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe periodontal wound healing in dehiscence-type defects following guided tissue re-generation (GTR) therapy. METHODS: Ten adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys were used. Buccal dehiscence-type defects were created at the maxillary second pre-molars and second molars. After 3 months, GTR surgery was performed. The animals were euthanized at 6 weeks, 6 months and 2 years after surgery. Block biopsies were harvested, and prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: A new attachment apparatus was structured already after 6 weeks of healing. A 10-20 microm thin layer of acellular extrinsic fibre cementum (AEFC) had formed along the instrumented root surface. At 6 months, the thickness of the supracrestal cementum was comparable with that at 6 weeks, while the thickness of the subcrestal cementum had increased to 40-60 microm. In this zone, the cementum consisted of an inner layer of AEFC attached to the circum-pulpal dentin and an outer layer of cellular mixed fibre cementum (CMFC). The numerical extrinsic fibre density was twice that at 6 weeks. At 2 years, the periodontal tissues resembled the pristine periodontium. CONCLUSION: Periodontal healing following GTR therapy of recession-type defects will result in a restitutio ad integrum, i.e. healing by re-generation. A continuous maturation process occurs over at least 2 years.

Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in evaluation of bioactive glass incorporation with bone
Valimaki, V. V., N. Moritz, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(33): 6693-703.
Abstract: This laboratory study examined the feasibility of non-invasive, in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) method in evaluation of bioactive glass incorporation with bone. An intramedullary defect model of the rat tibia was applied. The defect was filled with bioactive glass microspheres (diameter of 250-315 microm) or was left to heal without filling (empty controls). The results of the pQCT analysis were compared with those of histomorphometry. In the control defects, there was a good correlation (r2 = 0.776, p < 0.001) between the pQCT density of the intramedullary space and the amount of new bone measured by histomorphometry. In the defects filled with bioactive glass, the use of thresholding techniques of the applied pQCT system (Stratec XCT Research M) failed in separation of new bone formation and bioactive glass particles. However, detailed analysis of the pQCT attenuation profiles showed time-related changes which well matched with the histomorphometric results of new bone formation both in control and bioactive glass filled defects. The biphasic pQCT attenuation profiles of bioactive glass filled defects could be separated into two distinct peaks. In statistical analysis of various variables, the center (i.e. the value of attenuation) of the major attenuation peak was found to be the most significant indicator of the incorporation process. The center of the peak initially decreased (during the first 4 weeks of healing) and thereafter increased. These two phases probably reflect the primary resorption and reactivity of the bioactive glass microspheres in vivo followed by secondary new bone formation on their surfaces. Based on these results, pQCT-method seems to be suitable for in vivo follow-up of the bioactive glass incorporation processes. Although the imaging technique is not able to discriminate the individual microspheres from invading new bone unambiguously, the attenuation profiling seems to give adequate information about the state of the incorporation process. This information may help to establish non-invasive imaging techniques of synthetic bone substitutes for preclinical and clinical testing of their efficacy.

Periprosthetic osteolysis: induction of vascular endothelial growth factor from human monocyte/macrophages by orthopaedic biomaterial particles
Miyanishi, K., M. C. Trindade, et al. (2003), J Bone Miner Res 18(9): 1573-83.
Abstract: VEGF and VEGF receptor, Flt-1, expression was observed in periprosthetic tissues surrounding loosened total joint implants. Exposure of monocyte/macrophages to titanium particles resulted in increased VEGF expression, p44/42 MAPK activation, and VEGF-dependent macrophage chemotaxis. Increased levels of angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, may be critically important in wear debris-induced implant loosening after total joint arthroplasty. INTRODUCTION: Periprosthetic osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty occurs in association with formation of a vascularized granulomatous tissue in response to particulate debris. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the VEGF receptor in 10 periprosthetic tissues from loosened prostheses and quantified effects of titanium particles on VEGF release, intracellular signaling, and VEGF-dependent chemotaxis in primary cultures of human monocyte/macrophages. RESULTS: Double immunofluorescent staining showed that VEGF and Flt-1 co-localized with cells positive for the macrophage marker, CD11b, in the periprosthetic tissues. Monocyte/macrophages challenged with titanium particles showed a dose- and time-dependent release of VEGF ranging from 2.8- to 3.1-fold and exhibited increased expression of VEGF121 and VEGF165 mRNAs, reaching levels up to 5.0- and 8.6-fold, respectively, by 48 h (p < 0.01). Exposure of monocyte/macrophages to titanium particles upregulated phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) within 30 minutes. Particle-induced activation of p44/42 MAPK and release of VEGF were dose-dependently suppressed by pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of p44/42 MAPK. Monocyte/macrophages challenged with titanium particles also showed a time-dependent activation of AP-1, a transcription factor associated with VEGF expression (p < 0.01). Supernatants from particle-challenged monocyte/macrophages increased macrophage chemotactic activity by 30%, which was significantly inhibited by anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that induction of VEGF release from monocyte/macrophages in response to orthopaedic biomaterial wear debris may contribute to periprosthetic osteolysis and implant loosening.

Peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility testing: a realistic alternative?
Topley, N. (2005), Perit Dial Int 25(4): 348-51.

Permacol: clinical experience with a new biomaterial
Harper, C. (2001), Hosp Med 62(2): 90-5.
Abstract: Permacol (Tissue Science Laboratories plc, Aldershot, Hants) is a new biomaterial which combines the strength and permanence of synthetic surgical repair materials with the biocompatibility of natural materials. This article examines the clinical application of Permacol in a range of different surgical procedures.

Permeability of pig urinary bladder wall: the effect of chitosan and the role of calcium
Kerec, M., M. Bogataj, et al. (2005), Eur J Pharm Sci 25(1): 113-21.
Abstract: Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide widely employed as an absorption enhancer. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of chitosan on the permeability of isolated pig urinary bladder wall as well as to determine the role of calcium ions in this process. Besides permeability studies, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy were applied to get an insight into the mechanism by which chitosan increases the permeability of urinary bladder wall. Additionally, the obtained findings were compared to the mechanism proposed for Caco-2 cells. The results show that 0.5% (w/v) chitosan increases the permeability of urinary bladder wall by causing the desquamation of the urothelium. Calcium ions, when applied to the luminal surface of the urinary bladder at the same time as chitosan, decreases the effect of chitosan on permeation of the model drug moxifloxacin into the bladder wall in concentration dependent way. The desquamation of urothelium cells caused by chitosan was reduced in the presence of calcium, but not to such extent as it would be expected from the permeability studies. When present, calcium obviously interferes directly in the interactions between chitosan and the surface of urothelium.

Permeable guidance channels containing microfilament scaffolds enhance axon growth and maturation
Cai, J., X. Peng, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(2): 374-86.
Abstract: Successful peripheral nerve regeneration is still limited in artificial conduits, especially for long lesion gaps. In this study, porous poly(L-lactide-co-DL-lactide, 75:25) (PLA) conduits were manufactured with 16 poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) microfilaments aligned inside the lumen. Fourteen and 18 mm lesion gaps were created in a rat sciatic nerve lesion model. To evaluate the combined effect of permeable PLA conduits and microfilament bundles on axon growth, four types of implants were tested for each lesion gap: PLA conduits with 16 filaments; PLA conduits without filaments; silicone conduits with 16 filaments; and silicone conduits without filaments. Ten weeks following implantation, regeneration within the distal nerve was compared between corresponding groups. Antibodies against the markers S100, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), RMDO95, and P0 were used to identify Schwann cells, unmyelinated axons, myelinated axons, and myelin, respectively. Results demonstrated that the filament scaffold enhanced tissue cable formation and Schwann cell migration in all groups. The filament scaffold enhanced axonal regeneration toward the distal stump, especially across long lesion gaps, but significance was only achieved with PLA conduits. When compared to corresponding silicone conduits, permeable PLA conduits enhanced myelinated axon regeneration across both lesion gaps and achieved significance only in combination with filament scaffolds. Myelin staining indicated PLA conduits supported axon myelination with better myelin quantity and quality when compared to silicone conduits.

Perspective and trends for biomaterials
Bruck, S. D. (1978), Int J Artif Organs 1(2): 63-6.
Abstract: Biomaterials may be synthetic or of natural origin used in contact with living tissue and biological fluids for prosthetic, diagnostic, therapeutic, and storage applications. The opposing phenomena of clotting and fibrinolysis under physiological conditions significantly influence the biocompatibility of materials. Although smooth-surfaced biomaterials adsorb proteins when in contact with blood, subsequent enzymatic and hemorheological events alter these proteins, thus influencing their biological performance. In contrast to synthetic materials, the healthy, living endothelium exhibits active secretory functions in the maintenance of blood compatibility. The increasingly wide use of biomaterials besides cardiovascular surgery justifies a broad-based approach because too narrow objectives often bypass significant opportunities that are realistic in terms of technological advancement and societal needs.

Pexiganan-incorporated collagen matrices for infected wound-healing processes in rat
Gopinath, D., M. S. Kumar, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 73(3): 320-31.
Abstract: The use of peptide-based drugs is limited by their rapid degradability and toxicity at high concentration during their therapeutic application. These problems could be managed by the use of a peptide delivery agent for sustained release in the site of action. Collagen is one of the most proven biomaterials of good biocompatibility with an exceptional ligand encapsulating property. In this work, we have shown that pexiganan, an antimicrobial, 22-amino-acid peptide could be incorporated and delivered to the wound-healing site against bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The release profiles of pexiganan collagen films with different collagen concentration were studied. The release of pexiganan from 2.5% w/w of collagen film showed a sustainable activity over 72 h with effective antimicrobial concentrations. Pexiganan-incorporated collagen (PIC)-treated groups were compared with open wound (OW)- and collagen film (CF)-treated rats. PIC-treated animals showed a diminishing level of bacterial growth as compared with OW- and CF-treated animals. The biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, protein, DNA, uronic acid, hexosamine, SOD, and catalase content in the granulation tissue of the healing wound revealed increased proliferation of cells involved in tissue reconstruction in PIC-treated groups when compared with OW- and CF-treated groups. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies suggested that collagen structure is not perturbed by pexiganan incorporation. This study provides rationale for application of collagen membrane for antimicrobial peptide delivery in infected wounds.

pH/temperature - sensitive imprinted ionic poly(N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels for bovine serum albumin
Demirel, G., G. Ozcetin, et al. (2005), Macromol Biosci 5(10): 1032-7.
Abstract: In this study, we have prepared pH/temperature-sensitive imprinted ionic poly(N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylamide/maleic acid) [P(TBA-co-AAm/MA)] hydrogels for bovine serum albumin (BSA) by using molecular imprinting method. BSA adsorption from aqueous BSA solutions was investigated with two types of hydrogel systems prepared by non-imprinted and imprinted methods. Hydrogels imprinted with BSA showed higher adsorption capacity and specificity for BSA than hydrogels prepared by the usual procedure. At all studied conditions, the highest BSA adsorption was observed in the hydrogel imprinted with 8.63 wt.-% BSA. In addition, the imprinted hydrogels exhibited both for good selectivity BSA and high adsorption rate depending on the number of BSA-sized cavities. Adsorption studies showed that other stimuli, such as pH, temperature and initial BSA concentration also influenced the BSA adsorption capacity of both non-imprinted and imprinted hydrogels.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006