|Articles about Biomaterials|
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| One-year results of a prospective multicenter study on Branemark System implants with a TiUnite surface
Friberg, B., C. Dahlin, et al. (2005), Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 7 Suppl 1: S70-5.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A moderately rough surface implant (TiUnite, Nobel Biocare AB, Goteborg, Sweden) was introduced in 2000. Laboratory studies and some clinical studies have demonstrated excellent bone response in the early healing phase. PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to follow a large number of consecutively treated patients using Branemark System implants with the TiUnite surface. The current report constitutes the 1-year data of a planned 3-year study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Originally, the study comprised 43 surgeons from 22 centers in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Five centers were excluded from the study because of poor compliance. Thus, 187 patients treated with 478 TiUnite implants were followed during 1 year of function. The majority of implants were inserted in maxillae (357 implants), and 78 of the implant sites were assigned the quality 4 figure. Radiographic evaluations were performed. RESULTS: Five implants were lost up to and including the 1-year follow-up, revealing implant cumulative survival rates of 98.6% and 100% for maxillae and mandibles, respectively. Three implants failed in quality 4 bone (3.8%). The mean marginal bone resorption at the end of the study period was 1.4 mm. The number of withdrawals of patients during the first year was high (19.3%). CONCLUSION: The present investigation showed a high implant cumulative survival rate of 98.9%. Values of marginal bone resorption were within normal ranges. No adverse effects of the TiUnite surface were reported, and complications during the study period were few and similar to those reported for the turned implant surface. However, the high number of excluded patients and the relatively high number of withdrawals must be observed and considered when interpreting data.
| On-line analysis of CAL72 cells on two different titanium surfaces in a perfusion micro-bioreactor
Bachle, M., M. A. Mahi, et al. (2005), Dent Mater 21(7): 633-40.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present experiment was to test a prototype microsensoric measuring system (micro-bioreactor) for the investigation of the biocompatibility of different titanium surfaces in a cell culture model. METHODS: Osteosarcoma cells of the cell line CAL72 were seeded onto titanium plates (10mm x 10mm x 1mm) and inserted into the culture chamber of the micro-bioreactor. Titanium plates with two different surface topographies (machined and titanium plasma-sprayed [TPS]) were used for this pilot investigation. Plastic plates served as controls. The online-sensoric device of the micro-bioreactor allowed the continuous monitoring of the metabolism of the cells and the control of the culture conditions. Over a period of 17 h changes in O(2)-consumption in the medium were measured by micro-electrodes and registered by the software of the system. The metabolic activity of the cells was calculated from the difference between the bypass and the chamber values. The cell proliferation and vitality were analyzed before and after the perfusion time in the micro-bioreactor. The cell morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The cells on the machined surfaces showed the highest oxygen consumption after 15 h, after that it decreased. The cells on the TPS plates showed a lower oxygen consumption, which remained stable after 17 h. The highest oxygen consumption was seen with the cells on the control plastic plates. Concerning cell proliferation analysis, it could be shown that more vital CAL72 cells seeded onto TPS and plastic could be detected after the passage through the micro-bioreactor. Hence, the number of vital cells on the machined surface was reduced after the passage. SIGNIFICANCE: Within the limits of this experiment, the presented micro-bioreactor system could offer a valuable method to examine the dynamic interactions of cells and materials under defined in vitro experimental conditions. While the presented system is already successfully used in the ecological/ecotoxicological field, its routine use for investigating dental materials on a cellular level has to be evaluated.
| Opinions and trends in biomaterials education: report of a 2003 Society for Biomaterials survey
Karp, J. M., E. A. Friis, et al. (2004), J Biomed Mater Res A 70(1): 1-9.
Abstract: The Society for Biomaterials (SFB) aims to serve its members through acting as a forum for the exchange of information and ideas. To aid in the practical development of the SFB and more specifically biomaterials education, all active, associate, and student members were surveyed. In general, the survey asked questions regarding respondent demographics, experiences and activities with the SFB, and opinions about biomaterials education. Perceptions and needs of biomaterials-related education and career-related training practices were a specific focus of the survey. A total of 140 individuals responded to the survey for a response rate of 18%. Members from industry felt that new hires, in general, should be better trained in product development, regulatory issues for new materials and devices, and in the relevant testing required. When asked what was missing from their professional education, many respondents commented that business training in areas such as negotiations, management, and understanding the needs outside of academia was lacking. Also, many respondents seemed to have trouble identifying with what they were supposed to know and felt a "lack of set professional knowledge." This study has raised many ideas and questions that require further discussion. The results should ultimately be useful for helping the SFB decide how best to focus future efforts in biomaterials education.
| Optical nitrite sensor based on chemical modification of a polymer film
Kazemzadeh, A. and S. Daghighi (2005), Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 61(8): 1871-5.
Abstract: A new, low-cost nitrite sensor was developed by immobilizing a direct indicator dye in an optical sensing film for food and environmental monitoring. This sensor was fabricated by binding gallocyanine to a cellulose acetate film that had previously been subjected to an exhaustive base hydrolysis. The membrane has good durability (>6 months) and a short response time (<7 s). Nitrite can be determined for the range 0.008-1.50 microg/ml with 3delta detection limits of 1 ng/ml. The method is easy to perform and uses acetylcellulose as a carrier. The reagents used for activating the cellulose support are inexpensive, non-toxic and widely available.
| Optical performance of 3 intraocular lens designs in the presence of decentration
Altmann, G. E., L. D. Nichamin, et al. (2005), J Cataract Refract Surg 31(3): 574-85.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To study the theoretical optical performance of 3 intraocular lens (IOL) designs in the presence of IOL decentration. SETTING: Optics Center, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, New York, USA. METHODS: A ray-tracing program was used to evaluate the effect of IOL decentration on the optical performance of 3 silicone IOLs (LI61U, Bausch & Lomb; Tecnis Z9000, Advanced Medical Optics; and a new aberration-free IOL [SofPort AO, Bausch & Lomb]) in an experimental model eye. The study was done using pupil diameters of 3.0 mm, 4.0 mm, and 5.0 mm and IOL decentrations of 0 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.75 mm, and 1.00 mm. The modulation transfer functions were computed and plotted. A Monte Carlo simulation analysis with 1000 trials with IOL decentration randomly varying for each pupil size was performed. RESULTS: Decentration of LI61U and Tecnis Z9000 IOLs led to asymmetrical higher-order aberrations that adversely affected the optical performance of the model eye; performance was not affected with the aberration-free IOL because it lacks inherent spherical aberration. Optical performance with the aberration-free IOL was better than with the LI61U IOL as the former has less spherical aberration and did not introduce other aberrations when decentered. Performance with the aberration-free IOL was better than with the Tecnis Z9000 IOL for 3.0 mm, 4.0 mm, and 5.0 mm pupils when decentration exceeded 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.38 mm, respectively. Performance with the LI61U IOL was better than with the Tecnis Z9000 IOL for 3.0 mm, 4.0 mm, and 5.0 mm pupils when decentration exceeded 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.5 mm, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations showed the expected postoperative results of the LI61U IOL and aberration-free IOL would be repeatable and predictable, whereas the outcomes with the Tecnis Z9000 IOL would vary widely. CONCLUSIONS: The optical performance of the model eye was not affected by decentration of an aspheric IOL designed to have no inherent spherical aberration. With decentration, the performance with the new IOL was better than with a conventional spherical IOL and an aspheric IOL designed to offset the spherical aberration of an average cornea.
| Optical probes for biological applications based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering from indocyanine green on gold nanoparticles
Kneipp, J., H. Kneipp, et al. (2005), Anal Chem 77(8): 2381-5.
Abstract: We report surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on indocyanine green (ICG) on colloidal silver and gold and demonstrate a novel optical probe for applications in living cells. In addition to its own detection by the characteristic ICG SERS signatures, the ICG gold nanoprobe delivers spatially localized chemical information from its biological environment by employing SERS in the local optical fields of the gold nanoparticles. The probe offers the potential to increase the spectral specificity and selectivity of current chemical characterization approaches of living cells and biomaterials based on vibrational information.
| Optimal biomaterial for creation of autologous cardiac grafts
Ozawa, T., D. A. Mickle, et al. (2002), Circulation 106(12 Suppl 1): I176-82.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The optimal cardiac graft for the repair of congenital heart defects will be composed of autologous cells and will grow with the child. The biodegradable material should permit rapid cellular growth and delayed degradation with minimal inflammation. We compared a new material, epsilon-caprolactone-co-L-lactide sponge reinforced with knitted poly-L-lactide fabric (PCLA), to gelatin (GEL) and polyglycolic acid (PGA), which are previously evaluated materials. METHODS: Syngenic rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs, 2x10(6)) were seeded onto GEL, PGA, and PCLA patches and cultured (n=11 per group). The DNA content in each patch was measured at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after seeding. Histological examination was performed 2 weeks after seeding. Cell-seeded patches were employed to replace a surgically created defect in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) of rats (n=5 per group). Histology was studied at 8 weeks following implantation. RESULTS: In vitro studies showed that the DNA content increased significantly (P<0.05) in all patches between 1 and 3 weeks after seeding. Histology and staining SMCs for anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) revealed better growth of cells in the interstices of the grafts with GEL and PCLA than the PGA graft. In vivo studies demonstrated that seeded SMCs survived at least 8 weeks after the patch implantation in all groups. PCLA scaffolds were replaced by more cells with larger alphaSMA-positive areas and by more extracellular matrix with larger elastin-positive areas than with GEL and PGA. The patch did not thin and expanded significantly. The GEL and PGA patches thinned and expanded. All grafts had complete endothelialization on the endocardial surface. CONCLUSIONS: SMC-seeded biodegradable materials can be employed to repair the RVOT. The novel PCLA patches permitted better cellular penetration in vitro and did not thin or dilate in vivo and did not produce an inflammatory response. The cell-seeded PCLA patch may permit the construction of an autologous patch to repair congenital heart defects.
| Optimal specimen geometry in bonded-disk shrinkage-strain measurements on light-cured biomaterials
Watts, D. C. and A. S. Marouf (2000), Dent Mater 16(6): 447-51.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the effect on apparent shrinkage-strain values of varying specimen aspect ratio in the bonded-disk configuration. Thereby one source of possible inter-laboratory variation might be understood and eliminated. METHODS: The bonded-disk procedure was followed and applied to three representative resin-composites. However, specimen sub-groups were examined, each of different diameters (3.5, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mm), corresponding to C-factors in the range 0.45-7.0. RESULTS: For each material, no statistically significant difference was apparent between data obtained with 7 and 9 mm diameter specimens. However, statistically significant reductions (p < 0.05, Scheffe and SNK) were apparent at 5.0 and 3.5 mm diameter, in the range 14-18% of the maximum 'true' value. For each material, the diameter (d)-dependence of apparent shrinkage-strain (epsilon) was given by the curve fit expression: epsilon = A - B/d2. SIGNIFICANCE: For accurate determination of maximum final equilibrium shrinkage-strain values, a high aspect ratio (7-9:1) of the bonded-disk should be utilised. This is important for accurate comparison of data from proposed low-shrinkage amalgam-replacement materials.
| Optimal timing of capsular tension ring implantation: Miyake-Apple video analysis
Ahmed, II, R. J. Cionni, et al. (2005), J Cataract Refract Surg 31(9): 1809-13.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the appropriate timing for capsular tension ring implantation in cases of zonular weakness either prior to or after lens extraction using Miyake-Apple video analysis. SETTING: John Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. METHODS: Four cadaver eyes were prepared using a standard Miyake-Apple protocol with image capture using digital video recording. After continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and hydrodissection/viscodissection were performed, 2 eyes had early capsular tension ring implantation (CTR) and 2 eyes had CTR implantation after lens extraction. The 12.3 mm CTR was implanted in all eyes. Capsular bag torque and displacement, zonular elongation and stress, and ease of CTR placement were evaluated in each eye. RESULTS: Early CTR implantation resulted in significantly increased capsular torque and displacement of up to 4.0 mm compared to insertion in an empty capsular bag. There was significant zonular elongation and tension during early placement. CONCLUSION: In terms of minimizing further zonular stress and damage and capsular destabilization, the ideal timing for CTR placement is after lens extraction and decompression of the capsular bag.
| Optimization and characterization of chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing albumin
Zheng, C. H., W. Q. Liang, et al. (2005), Pharmazie 60(6): 434-8.
Abstract: In order to obtain small microcapsules with high protein encapsulation efficiency and extended release characteristics various processing factors were studied. Bovine serum albumin-loaded alginate microcapsules were prepared by an emulsion method and further incubated in chitosan. Many process factors were tested including the concentration and molecular weight of alginate, the concentration and pH of chitosan, and surfactants, etc. Microcapsules were achieved with diameters less than 2 microm, high encapsulation efficiency (> 80%) and high loading rate (> 10% w/w). The results also showed that the initial BSA amount of 20%-30% loaded alginate microcapsules coated with 0.2%-0.5% chitosan solutions at pH 4 by the two-stage procedure present the best sustained releasing characteristics.
| Optimization and validation of a fully automated silica-coated magnetic beads purification technology in forensics
Nagy, M., P. Otremba, et al. (2005), Forensic Sci Int 152(1): 13-22.
Abstract: Automated procedures for forensic DNA analyses are essential not only for large-throughput sample preparation, but are also needed to avoid errors during routine sample preparation. The most critical stage in PCR-based forensic analysis is DNA isolation, which should yield as much highly purified DNA as possible. The extraction method used consists of pre-treatment of stains and samples, cell lysis using chaotropic reagents, binding of the DNA to silica-coated magnetic particles, followed by elution of the DNA. Our work focuses mainly on sample preparation, obtaining the maximum possible amount of biological material from forensic samples, and the following cell lysis, to create a simple standardized lysis protocol suitable for nearly all forensic material. After optimization and validation, the M-48 BioRobot((R)) workstation has been used for more than 20,000 routine lab samples. There has been no evidence of cross contamination. Resulting DNA from as small as three nuclear cells yield reliable complete STR amplification profiles. The DNA remains stable after 2 years of storage.
| Optimization of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases
Trivedi, A., M. Heinemann, et al. (2005), J Biosci Bioeng 99(4): 340-7.
Abstract: In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently influence the immobilization efficiency, expressed in terms of residual activity and protein loading. Residual activity of 79% was achieved with ADH from bakers' yeast (YADH) after optimizing the immobilization parameters. A step-wise drying process has been found to be more effective than one-step drying. A hypothesis of deactivation through bubble nucleation during drying of the enzyme/glass bead suspension at low drying pressure (<45 kPa) is experimentally verified. In the case of ADH from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH), >300% residual activity was found after drying. Hyperactivation of the enzyme is probably caused by structural changes in the enzyme molecule during the drying process. ADH from Thermoanaerobacter species (ADH T) is found to be stable under drying conditions (>15 kPa) in contrast to LBADH and YADH.
| Optimization of thickness, pore size and mechanical properties of a biomaterial designed for deep burn coverage
Berthod, F., G. Saintigny, et al. (1994), Clin Mater 15(4): 259-65.
Abstract: A collagen and chondroitins 4-, 6-sulphate biomaterial designed for the coverage of severe burns was optimized in terms of mechanical strength by addition of 20% (wt/vol) of chitosan to the starting material. Chitosan should create ionic bonds with collagen and thus increase the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the sponge. On the other hand, sterilization by h-irradiation of the biomaterial induced a decrease in its mechanical properties that could be avoided by sterilization using beta-irradiation. The thickness, pore size and morphology of the biomaterial were optimized before freeze-drying by freezing the mixture at -60 degrees C at a weight/volume concentration of 1.25% and a volume of 270 mul/cm2. The biomaterial obtained under these conditions may further the vascularization and cellular colonization of the porous structure by the host cells of the wound bed and therefore may accelerate the regeneration of a new dermis.
| Optimum surface properties of oxidized implants for reinforcement of osseointegration: surface chemistry, oxide thickness, porosity, roughness, and crystal structure
Sul, Y. T., C. Johansson, et al. (2005), Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 20(3): 349-59.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate detailed surface characterization of oxidized implants in a newly invented electrolyte system and to determine optimal surface oxide properties to enhance the bone response in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 screw-type titanium implants were prepared and divided into 1 control group (machine-turned implants) and 4 test groups (magnesium ion-incorporated oxidized implants). Forty implants were used for surface analyses. A total of 60 implants, 12 implants from each group, were placed in the tibiae of 10 New Zealand white rabbits and measured with a removal torque test after a healing period of 6 weeks. RESULTS: For the test groups, the oxide thicknesses ranged from about 1,000 to 5,800 nm; for the control group, mean oxide thickness was about 17 nm. The surface morphology showed porous structures for test groups and nonporous barrier film for the control group. Pore diameter ranged from < or = 0.5 microm to < or = 3.0 microm. In regard to surface roughness, arithmetic average height deviation (Sa) values varied from 0.68 to 0.98 microm for test implants and 0.55 microm for control implants; developed surface ratio (Sdr) values ranged from 10.6% to 46% for the test groups and were about 10.6% for the control group. A mixture of anatase and rutile-type crystals were observed in the test groups; amorphous-type crystals were observed in the control group. After a healing period of 6 weeks, removal torque measurements in all 4 test groups demonstrated significantly greater implant integration as compared to machine-turned control implants (P < or =.033). DISCUSSION: Determinant oxide properties of oxidized implants are discussed in association with bone responses. Of all surface properties, RTVs were linearly increased as relative atomic concentrations of magnesium ion increase. CONCLUSIONS: Surface properties of the oxidized implants in the present study, especially surface chemistry, influenced bone responses. The surface chemistry of the optimal oxidized implant should be composed of approximately 9% magnesium at relative atomic concentration in titanium oxide matrix and have an oxide thickness of approximately 1,000 to 5,000 nm, a porosity of about 24%, and a surface roughness of about 0.8 microm in Sa and 27% to 46% in Sdr; its oxide crystal structure should be a mixture of anatase- and rutile-phase crystals.
| Oral chemotherapeutic delivery: design and cellular response
Blanchette, J. and N. A. Peppas (2005), Ann Biomed Eng 33(2): 142-9.
Abstract: The development of carriers to deliver a variety of cancer therapeutics orally would represent a significant advance in the treatment of this disease. This system is based on hydrophilic polymer carriers to deliver therapeutic agents to the upper region of the small intestine in response to the pH increase when passing from the stomach. Methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol (EG) combined in a 1:1 molar ratio were reacted to form P(MAA-g-EG) nanospheres by UV-initiated free radical polymerization. Bleomycin was added prior to polymerization to allow in situ polymerization loading. Release studies were carried out in conditions to model the environment of the stomach and small intestine. Results showed that bleomycin is preferentially released at a higher pH due to the increased mesh size of the swollen hydrogel carrier. The potential cytotoxicity of bleomycin on the small intestine was investigated with the use of Caco-2 cells (human colon adenocarcinoma). Cytotoxicity studies showed maintenance of both viability and proliferation. The presence of the nanospheres decreases the transepithelial electrical resistance across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Complexation hydrogels are promising carriers to expand the number of chemotherapeutics capable of being administered orally.
| Orderly arrangement of hepatocyte spheroids on a microfabricated chip
Fukuda, J. and K. Nakazawa (2005), Tissue Eng 11(7-8): 1254-62.
Abstract: This article describes a novel method for preparing several spherical multicellular aggregates (spheroids) that have almost the same diameter on a microfabricated chip. The chip, fabricated by a simple method that uses a micromilling system, consisted of several thousand cavities, 100-500 microm in diameter, in a triangular arrangement on a polystyrene plate. Although no spheroid was formed on any chip when cultured under stationary conditions, hepatocytes formed spheroids in the cavities when turning force was applied with a rotary shaker. Especially on the chip with cavities 300 microm in diameter, one spheroid formed in each cavity; an orderly array of spheroids (1100 spheroids/cm(2)) of almost the same diameter was constructed. Ammonia removal and albumin secretion by the spheroids on the chip continued to occur at initial levels for at least 14 days of culture. Enzyme P-450 activity of the spheroids was also maintained and detected on this transparent chip by fluorescence of resorufin converted from ethoxyresorufin. The spheroid microarray chip seems to be a promising cellular platform for various biomedical applications such as in cell-based biosensors for toxicological and pharmacological examinations, and in bioartificial livers.
| Orthodontic biomaterials: from the past to the present
Kusy, R. P. (2002), Angle Orthod 72(6): 501-12.
| Osseous implant for studies of biomaterials using an in vivo electrochemical transducer
Fox, W. C. and M. A. Miller (1993), J Biomed Mater Res 27(6): 763-73.
Abstract: The in vitro and in vivo electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) was characterized using a specialized osseous implant in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement techniques. Studies performed in vitro were used to verify the operation of the transducer and develop methods of deconvoluting EIS data. This method was subsequently used to describe an electrochemical equivalent circuit model of the surface oxide and electrical double-layer capacitance of cp Ti in the endogenous electrolyte found in the medullary compartment of a baboon tibia. Kinetic profiles of the double-layer capacitance and the polarization resistance were constructed from multiple in vitro and in vivo EIS measurements performed over 60 min at 0 V (reference Ag/AgCI) conditioning potential. The profiles demonstrated that the growth of surface oxides was biphasic, with rapid decrease in the double-layer capacitance occurring within 20 min and reaching steady-state conditions at approximately 40 min. These data suggested that a passive, stable biofilm formed on the cp Ti surface in vivo and in vitro.
| Osteoblast adhesion and matrix mineralization on sol-gel-derived titanium oxide
Advincula, M. C., F. G. Rahemtulla, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(10): 2201-12.
Abstract: The biological events occurring at the bone-implant interface are influenced by the topography, chemistry and wettability of the implant surface. The surface properties of titanium alloy prepared by either surface sol-gel processing (SSP), or by passivation with nitric acid, were investigated systematically using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle metrology. The bioreactivity of the substrates was assessed by evaluating MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell adhesion, as well as by in vitro formation of mineralized matrix. Surface analysis of sol-gel-derived oxide on Ti6Al4V substrates showed a predominantly titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) composition with abundant hydroxyl groups. The surface was highly wettable, rougher and more porous compared to that of the passivated substrate. Significantly more cells adhered to the sol-gel-coated surface, as compared with passivated surfaces, at 1 and 24h following cell seeding, and a markedly greater number of mineralized nodules were observed on sol-gel coatings. Collectively our results show that the surface properties of titanium alloy can be modified by SSP to enhance the bioreactivity of this biomaterial.
| Osteoblast adhesion on biomaterials
Anselme, K. (2000), Biomaterials 21(7): 667-81.
Abstract: The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopaedic surgery is now booming. Two fields of research in particular are emerging: the association of osteo-inductive factors with implantable materials; and the association of osteogenic stem cells with these materials (hybrid materials). In both cases, an understanding of the phenomena of cell adhesion and, in particular, understanding of the proteins involved in osteoblast adhesion on contact with the materials is of crucial importance. The proteins involved in osteoblast adhesion are described in this review (extracellular matrix proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, integrins, cadherins, etc.). During osteoblast/material interactions, their expression is modified according to the surface characteristics of materials. Their involvement in osteoblastic response to mechanical stimulation highlights the significance of taking them into consideration during development of future biomaterials. Finally, an understanding of the proteins involved in osteoblast adhesion opens up new possibilities for the grafting of these proteins (or synthesized peptide) onto vector materials, to increase their in vivo bioactivity or to promote cell integration within the vector material during the development of hybrid materials.
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