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Inflammatory cell recruitment and adhesion to methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers: effect of implantation time
Barbosa, J. N., M. A. Barbosa, et al. (2005), Microsc Res Tech 66(1): 37-42.
Abstract: The contribution of methyl groups in implant-triggered inflammation was investigated in vivo using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols on gold. The CH(3)-coated implants were inserted in an air-pouch cavity induced in BALB/c mice. The in situ inflammatory response was monitored 24, 48, and 72 hours later. Inflammatory cells recovered from the air pouches were counted and observed by light microscopy. The cellularity of the implant surfaces was defined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In comparison with gold implants, the CH(3)-coated SAMs recruited a significantly higher number of inflammatory cells. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were more numerous than mononuclear cells (Mo) in the exudates recovered from the air pouches with CH(3)-coated SAMs. The opposite PMN/Mo proportion was observed in air pouches of the two control groups (mice receiving gold implants or sham-operated animals). A low density of adherent cells was seen on CH(3)-coated implants, with no significant quantitative differences during the time course of the study. In contrast, the gold-coated surfaces were covered with numerous cells during all of the 3 days of the inflammation. In conclusion, implants with CH(3) surfaces are likely to induce PMN-dominated local acute inflammation but these surfaces are not associated with a significant adherence of leukocytes to the implant.

Inflammatory responses to biomaterials
Tang, L. and J. W. Eaton (1995), Am J Clin Pathol 103(4): 466-71.
Abstract: Implanted biomedical devices are of increasing importance in modern medical care. However, surprisingly little is known of the factors that determine biocompatibility of the materials used in these devices. These materials, although generally inert and non-toxic, can mediate a variety of adverse reactions, including inflammation, fibrosis, coagulation, and infection. This brief review focuses on the inflammatory responses (including fibrosis) that commonly occur around implanted biomaterials. Host proteins that spontaneously associate with implant surfaces are important determinants of the acute inflammatory response. In this regard, adsorbed fibrinogen appears particularly pro-inflammatory. Chronic inflammatory processes, in many cases in response to fragments of implanted biomaterials, may cause implant failure. In the case of silicone-filled mammary prostheses, the extravasation of silicone gel has been held responsible for a number of complications, including silicone granuloma, synovitis, connective-tissue disease, and lymphadenopathy. In some instances, material-mediated inflammatory responses may even cause degradation of the material itself (via oxidative products released by implant-associated inflammatory cells). Overall, there is insufficient knowledge of the determinants and mechanisms of host: implant responses. A clear understanding of tissue:biomaterial interactions will be required both to explain the pathogenesis of many implant-mediated complications and to aid in the development of more biocompatible materials for implantable devices.

Inflammatory responses to implanted polymeric biomaterials: role of surface-adsorbed immunoglobulin G
Tang, L., A. H. Lucas, et al. (1993), J Lab Clin Med 122(3): 292-300.
Abstract: In many cases, evidently inert and nontoxic biomaterials may trigger procoagulant and inflammatory responses. Because most polymeric biomaterials accumulate a surface layer of protein immediately after implantation, these adverse reactions may stem from secondary interactions between the host and this surface layer of adsorbed proteins. Using polyester terephthalate (the polymer from which both Dacron and Mylar are produced) as a model, we have explored the hypothesis that surface-adsorbed immunoglobulin might mediate subsequent inflammatory responses. We find, as have others, that immunoglobulin G (IgG) does spontaneously adsorb to polymer surfaces, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, polymer implants precoated with IgG do activate human polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro and also attract substantial numbers of phagocytes (especially polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages) when implanted in mice. However, when implants are placed in mice having a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (and, consequently, almost undetectable levels of serum IgG), a near-normal influx of phagocytic cells ensues. Thus, spontaneously-adsorbed surface IgG does not appear to be a necessary precedent to inflammatory responses directed against implanted biomaterials.

Inflammatory responses to orthopaedic biomaterials in the murine air pouch
Wooley, P. H., R. Morren, et al. (2002), Biomaterials 23(2): 517-26.
Abstract: An in vivo model of the inflammatory response to orthopaedic biomaterials was used to examine cellular and cytokine responses to polymer particles of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and metal particles of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Responses were determined separately and in combinations, to examine interactions between different forms of biomaterials. Murine air pouches were injected with particle suspensions, and reactions evaluated using histological, immunological, and molecular techniques. All particulate biomaterials caused significant increases in membrane thickness compared with control (saline) air pouches, with the highest reaction seen in response to Ti-6Al-4V particles. A synergistic increase in membrane thickness was observed when PMMA was combined with UHMWPE, suggesting that multiple biomaterial stimuli markedly increase the inflammatory reaction. Cellular analysis indicated that all particles increased the absolute number and the percentage of macrophages in the membrane over the control level, with the most pronounced increase due to individual biomaterial occurring with UHMWPE particles. Cytokine analysis revealed that biomaterials provoked a strong IL-1 response. Ti-6Al-4V stimulated the highest IL-6 gene transcription and the lowest IL-1 gene transcription. The data suggest that synergism in the inflammatory response to biomaterials may be important in adverse responses to orthopaedic wear debris.

Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model
Shin, J. H., H. Y. Song, et al. (2005), Eur Radiol 15(6): 1241-9.
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean+/-standard deviation, 46.88+/-23.75) than in the CS (73.75+/-14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63+/-2.05) than in CS (3.49+/-2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model.

Influence of alginate on type II collagen fibrillogenesis
Kuo, S. M., Y. J. Wang, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(6): 525-31.
Abstract: Collagen II is the majority of extracellular matrix components in articular cartilage, which with the major functions of preventing expansion of the tissue and distributing the load of body weight. To obtain man-made ECM, the reconstitution of collagen could be conducted in the presence of negatively charged polysaccharide, such as alginate. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide capable of eversible gelated in calcium ion solution to prepare different shapes of biomaterials. Its well-known biocompatibility makes it an ideal material in biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alginate on the fibrillogenesis of type II collagen. The preliminary results revealed that inclusion of alginate into soluble type II collagen solution could inhibit the development of turbidity of collagen solution, and the apparent rate constants in lag and growth phases decreased during collagen formation period, both rate constants decreased to about one-third of the original constants, respectively. From TEM observations, the collagen fibrils were significantly thicker in 0.05% and 0.1% alginate as compared with pure collagen solution. Furthermore, the D-periods of collagen fibers kept unchanged significantly under all reconstituted conditions, which meant the packing of collagen monomer was probably not affected by adding these amounts of alginate.

Influence of anionic monomer content on the biodegradation and toxicity of polyvinyl-urethane carbonate-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites
Yang, L., J. Hong, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(30): 5951-9.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize a series of anionic biodegradable polymer resins for their compatibility in a biological environment, comparing them with respect to the influence of ionic function on enzyme catalyzed biodegradation when the polymers were incorporated into a porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) 3-D structure to form an interpenetrating phase composite (IPC). The swelling behavior of the polymers was investigated by immersing the cured polymer resins in growth media at 37 degrees C. In vitro cytotoxicity of the polymer resins was assessed using a HeLa cell line. Cell viability increased when the amount of low molecular weight monomer was minimized. Despite observing that the addition of carboxylic acid groups into the polymer resin chains contributed to an improvement of the chemical bonding between the polymer and the CPP, the addition of high ionic content into the resin led to the greatest loss of bending strength for the samples incubated in phosphate buffer and cholesterol esterase enzyme solutions, when compared to their as made state. The increased degradation for the higher ionic component materials and their loss of physical strength was attributed to enhanced hydrolysis within the materials and by water transport deep within the composites, via the anionic components of the resin. The findings indicated that the introduction of anionic content must be optimized to promote increased mechanical performance for the CPP, balancing the features of polymer CPP bonding versus polymer swelling and cytotoxicity.

Influence of anions on the formation and properties of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles
Peng, J., X. Xing, et al. (2005), J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5(5): 713-7.
Abstract: Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles were prepared by using different anions (such as chloride, sulfate, citrate, and tripolyphosphate) as mediation agents. The research suggested that the formation and morphological characteristics of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles largely depended on concentration, molecular size, charge number, and chemical structure of anions, as well as chitosan/DNA ratio. The observation by atom force microscopy showed that chitosan-DNA nanoparticles mediated by four anions (in their appropriate range of concentration) had a spherical shape, narrow size distribution, and good monodispersivity. Especially, nanoparticles mediated by sulfate and TPP had a size distribution of 40-50 nm. Additionally, the nanoparticles presented high encapsulation efficiency and good protection of DNA from DNasel digestion. The zeta-potential of nanoparticles could be adjusted moderately by adding different anions and controlling their concentrations, and DNA encapsulation efficiency was not influenced, which would reduce nonspecific interactions with the cell membrane and nanoparticle toxicity. Smaller size and lower zeta-potential will be beneficial for improving gene therapy. In addition, the anion mediation method has potential for the preparation of cationic polymer nanoparticles as drug or gene vectors.

Influence of biomaterial surface chemistry on the apoptosis of adherent cells
Brodbeck, W. G., M. S. Shive, et al. (2001), J Biomed Mater Res 55(4): 661-8.
Abstract: A common component of the foreign-body response to implanted materials is the presence of adherent macrophages that fuse to form foreign-body giant cells (FBGCs). These multinucleated cells have been shown to concentrate the phagocytic and degradative properties of macrophages at the implant surface and are responsible for the damage and failure of the implant. Therefore, the modulation of the presence or actions of macrophages and FBGCs at the material-tissue interface is an extensive area of recent investigations. A possible mechanism to achieve this is through the induction of the apoptosis of adherent macrophages, which results in no inflammatory consequence. We hypothesize that the induction of the apoptosis of biomaterial adherent cells can be influenced by the chemistry of the surface of adhesion. Herein, we demonstrate that surfaces displaying hydrophilic and anionic chemistries induce apoptosis of adherent macrophages at a higher magnitude than hydrophobic or cationic surfaces. Additionally, the level of apoptosis for a given surface is inversely related to that surface's ability to promote the fusion of macrophages into FBGCs. This suggests that macrophages fuse into FBGCs to escape apoptosis.

Influence of biomaterial surface texture on bone ingrowth in the rabbit femur
Friedman, R. J., Y. H. An, et al. (1996), J Orthop Res 14(3): 455-64.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine both the histologic and the mechanical characteristics of bone apposition to an experimental surface, arc-deposited titanium, in a rabbit model and to compare them with those of four previously studied surfaces: one layer of cobalt-chromium beads, three layers of cobalt-chromium beads, plasma-sprayed cobalt-chromium, and uncoated titanium alloy. Bilateral cylindrical implants were press-fit into the lateral femoral condyles of 70 adult New Zealand White rabbits, which were allowed unrestricted activity and then killed at 6 or 12 weeks. The distal femora were harvested, radiographed, and prepared for either mechanical or histologic evaluation. All of the implants with coated surfaces had significantly greater shear strength than the implants of grit-blasted titanium alloy after both 6 and 12 weeks. After 6 weeks, maximum bone apposition occurred in the beaded surfaces. After 12 weeks, the shear strengths and bone apposition of implants of arc-deposited titanium and of one and three layers of cobalt-chromium beads were significantly greater than those of implants of plasma-sprayed cobalt-chromium and grit-blasted titanium alloy. The histologic studies correlated with the mechanical results. After 12 weeks, the bone apposition and mechanical stability of arc-deposited titanium were similar to those of a single layer of beads. There appeared to be no advantage to multiple layers of beads, and the plasma-sprayed cobalt-chromium and grit-blasted titanium surfaces showed lower shear strength and bone apposition than the other groups.

Influence of carboxyl group density on neuron cell attachment and differentiation behavior: gradient-guided neurite outgrowth
Li, B., Y. Ma, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(24): 4956-63.
Abstract: A UV pre-irradiation step followed by a UV grafting step was used to graft poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on polymeric substrates. These substrates were then used to investigate the influence of carboxyl groups (-COOH) on cell behavior. Both the attachment and differentiation behaviors of C17.2 cells showed a -COOH group density-dependent response. In order to achieve an even distribution of cells on a -COOH gradient surface for neuron differentiation studies, an Ar plasma post-treatment was applied to the PAA-grafted surfaces. It greatly improved the cell adhesion properties with little damage to -COOH groups. This allows uniform distributions of seeded cells even on substrates with -COOH gradients. A linear or stepped -COOH gradient was found to be capable of serving as a repelling cue to guide the outgrowth of neurites from C17.2 cells. Up to 3.7 times more cells developed neurites growing down the -COOH gradient than growing up it.

Influence of channel width on alignment of smooth muscle cells by high-aspect-ratio microfabricated elastomeric cell culture scaffolds
Glawe, J. D., J. B. Hill, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(1): 106-14.
Abstract: Engineered smooth muscle tissue requires ordered configurations of cells to reproduce native function, and microtechnology offers possibilities for physically and chemically controlling cell organization with high spatial resolution. In this work, poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel scaffolds, modified by layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolytes to promote cell adhesion, were evaluated for use as substrates for the culture of aligned smooth muscle cells. The hypothesis that narrower channels would result in better alignment was tested using channel width dimensions of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 microm, in addition to flat (control) surfaces. Alignment of cells was assessed by two different methods, each sensitive to a different aspect of cell alignment from fluorescence micrographs. Two-dimensional fast Fourier transform analysis was performed to analyze the orientation distribution of actin filaments in cells. This was complemented by connectivity analysis of stained nuclei to obtain nuclear orientation distributions. Both methods produced consistent data that support the hypothesis that narrow microchannels promote a highly aligned culture of smooth muscle cells, and the degree of alignment is dependent on the microchannel width. Precise replication of in vivo cell alignment in engineered tissue, with the ability to tailor specific surface chemistries of the scaffold to the desired application, will potentially allow the production of artificial tissue that more closely duplicates the structure and function of native tissue.

Influence of copolymer composition of polylactide implants on cranial bone regeneration
Leiggener, C. S., R. Curtis, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(2): 202-7.
Abstract: Biodegradable polymers have become useful auxiliary materials for the functional and structural restoration of bone deficiencies. Commercial implants from poly(L/DL-lactide) 70:30 are used clinically for fracture fixation in regions of low load. Implants manufactured from poly(L/DL-lactide) 80:20 are currently being investigated experimentally. The higher degree of crystallinity results in a higher chemical strength and loading capacity which promises advantages for long-term implantation. In this study implants from these two copolymers were applied to promote bone regeneration of bilateral, full thickness, circular cranial defects in 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The defects were covered with melt extruded and laser cut polylactide burr hole covers epicranially and endocranially in direct contact to the dura. The defect spaces were kept open with a spacer which created a hollow chamber. Both materials were implanted in each animal. Bone seeking fluorochromes were used to assess the pattern of bone growth. After eight weeks bone regeneration in the defects was assessed radiologically, histologically and by fluorescence microscopy. During the eight weeks observation period the application of a hollow chamber design resulted in almost complete cranial defect healing, whereby the copolymer composition had no effect on the amount or the morphology of the regenerate. The dura mater showed no adverse tissue reactions during these early stages of implantation. Eight weeks is only a short period in the lifetime of the tested polymers and complete bone regeneration can only be expected after complete polymer degradation. Long-term studies or accelerated degradation studies are required to confirm the expected advantages of poly(L/DL-lactide) 80:20.

Influence of different treatment approaches on the removal of early plaque biofilms and the viability of SAOS2 osteoblasts grown on titanium implants
Schwarz, F., A. Sculean, et al. (2005), Clin Oral Investig 9(2): 111-7.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different treatment approaches on: (1) the removal of early plaque biofilms grown on titanium implants, and (2) the biocompatibility of the instrumented implant surfaces. Five volunteers wore acrylic splints with sand-blasted and acid-etched titanium discs for 24 h to build up supragingival plaque. A total of 80 specimens were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) an Er:YAG laser (100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) (Y), (2) an ultrasonic system (U), (3) plastic curettes and rinsing with chlorhexidine digluconate (P), or (4) unworn titanium discs (C). Autoclaved specimens were incubated with SAOS2 cells for three days. The following parameters were measured: treatment time (T), residual plaque biofilm (RPB) and clean implant surface (CIS) areas (%), and mitochondrial cell activity (MA) (counts/s). Statistical analysis within and between groups revealed the following mean scores (+/-SD): RPB areas: P (61.1+/-11.4)>U (36.8+/-4.5)>Y (5.8+/-5.1); CIS areas: Y (94.2+/-5.1)>U (63.2+/-4.5)>P (38.9+/-11.2); T: Y (5.6+/-1.2)>U (2.4+/-0.5)>P (2.3+/-0.5); MA: C (1.528.636+/-188.371)>U (831.594+/-370.228)>Y (678.250+/-367.902)>P (144.105+/-120.961). Within the limits of the present study, it may be concluded that Y seems to be most suitable for the removal of supragingival early plaque biofilms grown on SLA titanium implants, and (2) all treatment procedures failed to restore the biocompatibility of previously-contaminated SLA titanium surfaces.

Influence of DL-beta-hydroxybutyric acid on cell proliferation and calcium influx
Cheng, S., Q. Wu, et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(2): 593-7.
Abstract: Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), a member of the polyhydroxyalkanoate family of biopolyesters, has superior mechanical properties and biocompatibilities that enable it to meet diverse biomedical requirements. The main component of PHBHHx is DL-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (HB), a ketone body that is also produced in vivo. The effects of HB treatment on murine fibroblast L929 cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and rabbit articular cartilages were investigated. HB (0.005-0.10 g/L) promoted cell proliferation for each cell line. Cell cycle analysis indicated that HB had a stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis. Flow cytometric analysis of L929 cells revealed changes in the [Ca2+]i for different stages of the cell cycle. In L929 cells, HB (0.02 g/L) stimulated a rapid increase in the concentration of cytosolic calcium that was blocked by verapamil and diltiazem, inhibitors of L-type Ca2+ channels. Finally, verapamil inhibited HB-induced L929 cell proliferation. Collectively, these results indicated that HB had a stimulatory effect on cell cycle progression that is mediated by a signaling pathway dependent upon increases in [Ca2+]i. This trophic effect may underlie the good biocompatibility observed for PHBHHx.

Influence of ferrous iron incorporation on the structure of hydroxyapatite
Morrissey, R., L. M. Rodriguez-Lorenzo, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(5): 387-92.
Abstract: Iron is a vital element of cellular function within the body. High concentrations of iron can be found in the kidneys and the circulatory system. In bones and teeth it is present as a trace element. The use of iron-based compounds in combination with hydroxyapatite offers a new alternative for prosthetic devices. This work investigates the synthesis and processing of iron containing apatites as a possible new type of ceramic for biomedical devices. Stoichiometric and calcium deficient iron containing apatites were synthesized by a wet chemical reaction with di-ammonium-hydrogen-phosphate, calcium nitrate and a ferrous iron nitrate solution. A secondary phase of tri-calcium-phosphate (TCP) was observed after heat treatment of iron containing, calcium deficient, hydroxyapatite. The apatite structure was maintained after heat treatment of stoichiometric apatite, synthesized in the presence of iron. Sintering in air produced oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+, resulting in the formation of hematite as a secondary phase. The introduction of iron into the synthesis of hydroxyapatite causes: (i) an increase of the a-lattice parameter after synthesis and heat treatment in air; (ii) an increase in the c-lattice parameter after sintering in air.

Influence of flocculation and adsorption as pretreatment on the fouling of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes: application with biologically treated sewage effluent
Shon, H. K., S. Vigneswaran, et al. (2005), Environ Sci Technol 39(10): 3864-71.
Abstract: Membrane fouling is a critical limitation on the application of membranes to wastewater reuse. This work aims to understand the fouling phenomenon which occurs in ultrafiltration (UF; 17500 molecular weight cutoff (MWCO)) and nanofiltration (NF; 250 MWCO) membranes, with and without pretreatment. For this purpose, the molecular weight (MW) distribution of the organics has been used as a parameter to characterize the influent, the permeate, and the foulant on the membrane surface. The variation of foulant concentration on the membrane due to pretreatment of the influent by flocculation and/or adsorption was investigated in detail. With the UF membrane, the peak of the MW distribution of organics in the permeate depended on the pretreatment; for example, the weight-averaged MW (Mw) of 675 without pretreatment shifted down to 314 with pretreatment. In the case of the NF membrane, the Mw of organics in the permeate was 478 (without pretreatment) and 310 (with flocculation followed by adsorption). The Mw of the organics in the foulant on the membrane surface was 513 (UF) and 192 (NF) without pretreatment and 351 (UF) and 183 (NF) after pretreatment with flocculation followed by adsorption, respectively. Without the pretreatment, the foulant concentration was higher on both membranes. The difference was more significant on the UF membrane than on the NF membrane. For both membranes, the flocculation-and-then-adsorption pretreatment proved very effective.

Influence of magnesium substitution on a collagen-apatite biomaterial on the production of a calcifying matrix by human osteoblasts
Serre, C. M., M. Papillard, et al. (1998), J Biomed Mater Res 42(4): 626-33.
Abstract: The induction of a calcifying matrix is of great interest in the restoration of bone defects. In a previous in vitro study we demonstrated that a collagen sponge constituted of type I collagen fibrils, chondroitin sulfates, and hydroxyapatite crystals induces an earlier and a more abundant synthesis of a new extracellular calcifying matrix than do other biomaterials such as collagen or hydroxyapatite alone. Bone mineral contains various amounts of magnesium ions, either adsorbed at the surface of apatite crystals or incorporated inside the crystal structure. Magnesium is known to reduce the degradation rate of tricalcium phosphate ceramics and to influence the crystallization of mineral substance. Thus we evaluated two sponges modified with different substituted apatites. The substituted low magnesium-containing apatite sample decreased the osteoinductive properties of the sponge whereas the substituted high magnesium-containing apatite sample had a toxic effect on bone cells and prevented the formation of any extracellular matrix. Such a toxic effect can be explained by the presence of large numbers of magnesium ions released into the culture medium even though at physiological level magnesium is able to promote bone mineralization and to control the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals. Thus collagen sponges containing hydroxyapatite remain one of the most appropriately evaluated biomaterials used for the restoration of periodontal pockets and bone defects.

Influence of Matrigel-overlay on constitutive and inducible expression of nine genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes in primary human hepatocytes
Gross-Steinmeyer, K., P. L. Stapleton, et al. (2005), Xenobiotica 35(5): 419-38.
Abstract: 1. Previous studies reported that rat hepatocytes overlaid with extracellular matrix components (Matrigel) maintain the expression and responsiveness of drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, whether Matrigel provides similar advantages in human hepatocytes remains largely uncertain.2. The influence of Matrigel-overlay on the constitutive and phenobarbital- and oltipraz-inducible expression of nine biotransformation enzymes, cytochrome P450s 1A1, 1A2, 2B6, 3A4, and glutathione S-transferases A1, A2, M1, T1, P1, in primary human hepatocytes was evaluated.3. Hepatocytes from five livers were maintained on a rigid collagen substratum with or without Matrigel overlay and treated for 48?h with two doses of each inducer. Quantitative RT-PCR, and for selected genes, immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses, demonstrated that human hepatocytes overlaid with Matrigel showed consistently higher constitutive and inducible expression of biotransformation genes. 4. Phenobarbital-mediated responsiveness of cytochrome P450 2B6, a potential indicator of hepatocyte differentiation status, was markedly higher in overlaid relative to non-overlaid hepatocytes. 5. It is concluded that an Matrigel overlay facilitates the maintenance and induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

Influence of mechanical behavior on the wear of 4 clinically relevant polymeric biomaterials in a hip simulator
Edidin, A. A. and S. M. Kurtz (2000), J Arthroplasty 15(3): 321-31.
Abstract: The elastic and large-deformation mechanical behavior of 4 materials with known clinical performance was examined and correlated with the wear behavior in a hip simulator. Acetabular liners of a commercially available design were machined from ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and polyacetal and wear tested in a multidirectional hip joint simulator. Elastic and large-deformation mechanical behavior was directly measured from the wear-tested liners using the small punch test. The finite element method was used to compute elastic modulus from the measured small punch test initial stiffness, and the contact stress for the liners was calculated using the theory of elasticity solution. Positive, statistically significant correlations were observed between the hip simulator wear rate and the initial peak load, ultimate load, and work to failure from the small punch test. Negative correlations were observed between the wear rate and the elastic modulus and contact stress. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the large-deformation mechanical behavior of a polymer plays a greater role in the wear mechanisms prevalent in total hip replacements than the elastic behavior.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006