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In vitro evaluation of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) as a novel biomaterial
Li, H., J. Chang, et al. (2005), Macromol Biosci 5(5): 433-40.
Abstract: Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) can be easily synthesized by condensation polymerization of the starting materials of succinic acid and butan-1,4-diol. It has good degradability and possesses excellent processability. Due to these advantages, PBSU was first evaluated in the present study for its potential application as a novel biomaterial. The in vitro biocompatibility of the PBSU was evaluated by monitoring proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on the PBSU film substrates for different periods. The results showed that the PBSU was biocompatible as the osteoblasts could proliferate and differentiate on the PBSU plates. In addition, the hydrolytic degradation behavior of the PBSU films in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was also investigated and the results suggested that the PBSU degraded in the PBS solution with the same behavior as that of the degradable poly(alpha-hydroxyesters). In addition to the biocompatibility and hydrolytic degradation, some physical properties, including hydrophilicity, and mechanical and thermal properties of the PBSU substrates, were also determined and the results revealed that the PBSU was hydrophilic and ductile with excellent processability. The biocompatibility of the PBSU, together with the advantages of hydrolytic degradability, hydrophilicity, and excellent processability, indicated that PBSU has the potential to be used as a biomaterial for tissue repair. [Diagram: see text] Alkaline phosphate activity of osteoblasts cultured on PBSU and TCPS substrates for different time periods.

In vitro evaluation of cell/biomaterial interaction by MTT assay
Ciapetti, G., E. Cenni, et al. (1993), Biomaterials 14(5): 359-64.
Abstract: The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT test) measures only in vitro living cells and the results are directly related to the number of viable cultured cells. It has been adopted in immunological investigations, cancer research and, recently, biocompatibility evaluation. We used the MTT method with minor modifications to fit it to an in vitro study of biomaterial-cell interactions. The MTT assay was confirmed to be feasible, rapid and reproducible. Moreover, it showed a good correlation with other in vitro proliferation assays, such as the 3H-thymidine uptake assay. By using the MTT method and the ASTM procedure for extracting biomaterials, we quantified the in vitro cell compatibility of different metals and polymers.

In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of diepoxy compounds used for biomaterial modification
Nishi, C., N. Nakajima, et al. (1995), J Biomed Mater Res 29(7): 829-34.
Abstract: The toxicity of various diepoxy compounds used for biomaterials crosslinking was investigated with a cell culture method and compared with an in vivo method. The neutral red uptake by cells was used to count the number of cells still alive after contact with the diepoxy compounds, because this method was more sensitive in cell counting than the other four methods studied in this work. The amount of neutral red taken up by cells depended strongly on the activity of cells in comparison with other methods; only small amounts of neutral red were taken up when cells were in a low activity state even if they were still alive. The in vitro toxicity of diepoxy compounds evaluated by the neutral red method revealed a good correlation with that found by the in vivo Draize test. The in vitro cytotoxicity to a cell line of L929 was closely related to that of primary culture cells of the normal rabbit cornea epidermal cell. The toxicity of diepoxy compounds was lower as their chain was longer, probably because of the lower chemical reactivity. All the diepoxy compounds investigated in this study exhibited lower cytotoxicity than formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and a water-soluble carbodiimide.

In vitro evaluation of platelet reactivity toward annuloplasty devices treated with heparin coating: studies under flow conditions
Tonda, R., A. M. Galan, et al. (2005), J Biomed Mater Res A 75(1): 192-8.
Abstract: We have applied an in vitro perfusion model to explore the potential thrombogenicity of polyester annulolasty fabric used in valve repair and to investigate the possible thromboresistance characteristics conferred by a special heparin coating (Duraflotrade mark treatment). Samples of human blood from i) untreated or ii) heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits were recirculated through annular perfusion chambers containing a) untreated or b) treated annuloplasty cloth material. Perfusion experiments were performed at a shear rate of 600 s(-1) for 20 min. Platelet interaction with the material was morphometrically evaluated. In experiments performed with blood from untreated circuits and cloth material, the average cross-sectional area of platelet mass was 615 +/- 135 microm2. Treatment of cloth material with Duraflotrade mark statistically decreased the area of interacting platelets to 319 +/- 101 microm2 (*p < 0.05, n = 10). Blood samples from heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits showed a decrease of total area of platelets (308 +/- 58 microm2 vs 138 +/- 30 microm2, *p < 0.05, n = 9). The combined treatment of Duraflotrade mark in extracorporeal circuits and cloth material caused a more consistent reduction (p < 0.05). The in vitro perfusion experimental model was sensitive to evaluate the thrombogenic potential of Duraflotrade mark treatment. Our results indicate that the heparin coating of cloth material and extracorporeal circuits improves the biocompatibility of the original material and reduces the thrombogenic profile.

In vitro evaluation of platelet/biomaterial interactions in an epifluorescent video microscopy combined with a parallel plate flow cell
Kawagoishi, N., C. Nojiri, et al. (1994), Artif Organs 18(8): 588-95.
Abstract: Suitable evaluation systems are critical for ranking various biomaterials in order to develop a method to design and synthesize nonthrombogenic biomaterials. We have recently developed an in vitro test system to evaluate platelet/biomaterial interactions in whole blood. The system consists of a parallel plate flow cell and epifluorescent video microscopy (EVM). A glass coverslip coated with a polymer was incorporated into the flow cell, and blood was perfused using a syringe pump via a polymer-coated PVC tubing connected to the flow cell. Whole human blood was anticoagulated with heparin (2 U/ml), and the platelets were labeled with the fluorescent dye mepacrine (5 microM). This system permitted real-time and dynamic observations of platelet/biomaterial interactions in whole blood under a defined flow condition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this system, two different segmented polyether-polyurethanes (SPEUs), PU-PTMG(650) and PU-PTMG(2000), were chosen as test polymers. Surface characteristics verified with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and contact angle measurements showed similar results in both SPEUs. Blood was perfused at a wall shear rate of 200 s-1 for 20 min. Excitation light was applied for 2 s at 1 min intervals. The real-time image was then analyzed at each time point for the percentage of surface area of platelet coverage. Plasma beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) levels were also measured before and after each run. PU-PTMG(650) showed a significantly higher number of adhered platelets than PU-PTMG(2000) at each time point.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

In vitro evaluation of the calcification behavior of polyurethane biomaterials for cardiovascular applications
Glasmacher-Seiler, B., H. Reul, et al. (1992), J Long Term Eff Med Implants 2(2-3): 113-26.
Abstract: Scope of the study is the calcification behavior of medical grade polyurethanes for cardiovascular devices. Within these applications, implant material calcification is a serious complication. The calcification behavior of these materials is investigated with a dynamic in vitro testing method for evaluating the influence of dynamic mechanical strain and parameters of the solubility of calcium salts.

In vitro growth and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells on hydroxyapatite ceramic granule calcified from red algae
Turhani, D., B. Cvikl, et al. (2005), J Oral Maxillofac Surg 63(6): 793-9.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the interaction between osteoblast-like cells isolated from mandibular bone and hydroxyapatite ceramic bone substitute obtained from calcified red algae to assess the growth and differentiation of adherent cells on this biomaterial. Materials and METHODS: The macroporous ceramic material C GRAFT/Algipore (The Clinician's Preference LLC, Golden, CO) is composed of 100% hydroxyapatite and possesses specific mechanical and physiochemical properties. Osteoblast-like cells were seeded on 200 mg of biomaterial and cultured for 6 and 21 days under osteogenic differentiation conditions. Specific alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA, and protein content of the proliferating cells were analyzed. The morphology of the cells in contact with the biomaterial was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cells was confirmed by analysis of the expression of bone-specific genes (osteocalcin, osteopontin and collagen type I) by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The DNA and protein content increased over the culture period. Scanning electron microscopy showed cells spreading on the surface of the biomaterials, covering the macropores, and colonizing the depth of the particles. The analysis of the expression patterns of bone-related genes confirmed the osteoblastic phenotype of the cultured cells. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that hydroxyapatite ceramic bone substitute obtained from calcified red algae support the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on its surface in vitro and might be suitable for use as scaffolds in tissue engineering strategies in vivo.

In vitro haemocompatibility and stability of two types of heparin-immobilized silicon surfaces
Wang, A., T. Cao, et al. (2005), Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 43(3-4): 245-55.
Abstract: Heparin was covalently immobilized onto a silicon surface by two different methods, carbodiimide-based immobilization and photo-immobilization. In the former method, a (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) or multilayer was first coated onto the silicon surface as the bridging layer, and heparin was then attached to the surface in the presence of water-soluble carbodiimide. In the latter method, an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAM was coated on the silicon surface as the bridging layer, and heparin was modified by attaching photosensitive aryl azide groups. Upon UV illumination, the modified heparin was then covalently immobilized onto the surface. The hydrophilicity of the silicon surface changed after each coating step, and heparin aggregates on APTMS SAM and OTS SAM were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In vitro haemocompatibility assays demonstrated that the deposition of APTMS SAM, APTMS multilayer and OTS SAM enhanced the silicon's haemocompatibility, which was further enhanced by the heparin immobilization. There is no evident distinction regarding the haemocompatibility between the heparin-immobilized surfaces by both methods. However, heparin on silicon with APTMS SAM and multilayer as the bridging layers is very unstable when tested in vitro with a saline solution at 37 degrees C, due to the instability of APTMS SAM and multilayer on silicon. Meanwhile, photo-immobilized heparin on silicon with OTS SAM as the bridging layer showed superb stability.

In vitro hemocompatibility of self-assembled monolayers displaying various functional groups
Sperling, C., R. B. Schweiss, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(33): 6547-57.
Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols with various terminating groups (-OH, -CH3, -COOH) and binary mixtures of these alkanethiols were studied with respect to their hemocompatibility in vitro by means of freshly taken human whole blood. The set of smooth monomolecular films with graded surface characteristics was applied to scrutinize hypotheses on the impact of surface chemical-physical properties on distinct blood activation cascades, i.e. to analyze -OH surface groups vs. complement activation, acidic surface sites vs. contact activation/coagulation and surface hydrophobicity vs. thrombogenicity. Blood and model surfaces were analyzed after incubation for the related hemocompatibility parameters. Our results show that the adhesion of leukocytes is abolished on a -CH3 surface and greatly enhanced on surfaces with -OH groups. The opposite was detected for the adhesion of platelets. A strong correlation between the activation of the complement system and the adhesion of leukocytes with the content of -OH groups could be observed. The contact activation for hydrophilic surfaces was found to scale with the amount of acidic surface sites. However, the coagulation and platelet activation did not simply correlate with any surface property and were therefore concluded to be determined by a superposition of contact activation and platelet adhesion.

In vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials according to the ISO 10993-4
Seyfert, U. T., V. Biehl, et al. (2002), Biomol Eng 19(2-6): 91-6.
Abstract: The development of synthetic materials, textured polymers and metals and their increasing use in medicine make research of biomaterials' hemocompatibility very relevant. Problems arise from the polymorphism and diversity of the different materials, the static and dynamic test models and the patients' individual biologic factors. First, methods, models, tests as well as preanalytical factors have to be standardized according to the current knowledge in medicine laid down in the ISO 10993 part 4. The routine controls used in clinical chemistry and hematology have to be performed. Information about normal ranges (mean value, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) should be provided. Tests have to be performed within a minimal delay of usually 2 h since some properties of blood change rapidly following collection. Various conditions (depending on the wall shear rate) were simulated within the centrifugation system and a Chandler system. Qualities and aspects of hemocompatibility such as platelet activation, oxidative burst, hemolysis, fibrinolysis, fibrin formation, generation of thrombin, contact activation, and complement activation were analysed and the results were entered non-dimensionally into a non-dimensional score system, where 0 points stand for the best and 65 points for the worst evaluation. We found a good correlation between the total score and contact activation, thrombin generation and leukocyte activation in a low shear stress system and a good correlation between the total score and thrombin generation, hemolysis and platelet activation in the high shear stress system. Further on the effect of additives and sterilization procedures can be measured. The concepts presented underline the relevance/importance of an efficient diagnostic approach to hemocompatibility that takes account of clinical and socio-economic concerns.

In vitro hemocompatibility testing of UV-modified hyaluronan hydrogels
Amarnath, L. P., A. Srinivas, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(8): 1416-24.
Abstract: Hydrogels (hylans) based on cross-linked hyaluronan (HA) are potentially good biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering applications because they are highly non-antigenic and -immunogenic. To facilitate surface endothelialization, vital to vascular deployment, we irradiated the gel surface with low wavelength UV light. This process micro-textures the smooth gel surface to provide sites for cell anchorage and causes limited scission of native long-chain HA yielding smaller fragments that elicit an enhanced cell response. In the current in vitro study, we assessed the effects of UV irradiation on the short-term (<45min) interaction between hylan gels and human blood cells (RBCs, platelets) and coagulation proteins at physiologic temperature. Although the lowered hydrophilicity of irradiated (UV) hylans elicited greater vascular cell response relative to unmodified (U) hylans, platelet deposition was unaffected and much lower compared to collagen-coated glass controls. The adhered platelets were rounded or mildly pseudopodic and did not express p-selectin, an activation marker. Both gel types induced identical, and minimal platelet release as measured using an platelet factor 4 ELISA, and identically deferred the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Both gel types induced elevated levels of contact activation of bound, but not plasma-phase factor XII relative to controls. Hemolysis rates were also identical and within accepted standards. We conclude that UV-treatment of hylans, useful to improve surface endothelialization, does not compromise their short-term hemocompatibility, vital to their use as vascular implant materials.

In vitro host response assessment of biomaterials for cardiovascular stent manufacture
Santin, M., L. Mikhalovska, et al. (2004), J Mater Sci Mater Med 15(4): 473-7.
Abstract: The deployment of a vascular stent during angioplasty has greatly reduced the risks of restenosis. However, the presence of the device still induces a host response as well as a mechanical action on the blood vessel wall and an alteration of the haemodynamics. Platelet and inflammatory cells can adhere on the stent surface and be activated to produce biochemical signals able to stimulate an excessive proliferation of the smooth muscle cells with the consequent obstruction of the vessel lumen. For these reasons, the host response to two of the materials used in stent manufacture, stainless steel and diamond-like carbon, was investigated in vitro. The data showed that stainless steel induced a higher level of host response both in terms of platelet aggregation and macrophage activation. However, the spreading of inflammatory cells was more accentuated on diamond-like carbon. The inflammatory cells produced levels of platelet-derived growth factor, a key signal in smooth muscle cell proliferation, similar to stainless steel thus suggesting that carbon coatings may not be able to prevent restenosis.

In vitro induction of a calcifying matrix by biomaterials constituted of collagen and/or hydroxyapatite: an ultrastructural comparison of three types of biomaterials
Serre, C. M., M. Papillard, et al. (1993), Biomaterials 14(2): 97-106.
Abstract: The induction of a calcifying matrix was studied in vitro and compared for three biomaterials (collagen sponge, hydroxyapatite material and a mixture of both (Biostite)) cultured with human osteoblast-like cells. The influence of biomaterials on organic matrix synthesis and the calcification process was analysed at the ultrastructural level (transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis). Biomaterials were well tolerated by bone cells. Whichever biomaterial was used, osteoblasts proliferated and synthesized a new matrix constituted of fibrillar and non-fibrillar elements. This activity appeared earlier and was more intense with Biostite than with collagen sponge alone. A deposition of a mineral substance in this newly formed matrix was observed with the collagen sponge and Biostite, but never with hydroxyapatite alone. The mineral deposits were identified as hydroxyapatite crystals, similar to those observed and analysed in bone tissue. These in vitro observations clearly demonstrated the property of Biostite to produce a calcified collagenous matrix similar to bone tissue. However, in vivo confirmation is required before extending the use of this biomaterial to periodontology.

In vitro models to test orthopedic biomaterials in view of their clinical application in osteoporotic bone
Torricelli, P., M. Fini, et al. (2004), Int J Artif Organs 27(8): 658-63.
Abstract: The development of in vitro cell cultures, in association with in vivo experimentation, greatly improved the characterization of biomaterials for orthopedic devices before their clinical use. In recent years an increasing interest has arisen in the use of both pathological osteoblast cultures and animal models to perform in vitro and in vivo tests on biomaterial behavior. A growing number of prostheses, in fact, are implanted in osteoporotic patients, due to the increasing age of the population. Moreover, the presence of osteoporosis may affect bone-biomaterial osteointegration in these patients. The present paper is a literature review and, after a short description of in vitro studies for characterization of osteoblasts derived from osteoporotic bone, the results of in vitro studies on biomaterial biocompatibility and osteointegration rate in the presence of osteoporotic bone derived osteoblast cultures are reported. Pathological cell culture models are able to demonstrate the different behavior of osteoblasts in response to biomaterials, when comparing normal and pathological conditions.

In vitro osteoclast resorption of bone substitute biomaterials used for implant site augmentation: a pilot study
Taylor, J. C., S. E. Cuff, et al. (2002), Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17(3): 321-30.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This observational study examined the resorptive behavior of normal neonatal rabbit osteoclasts grown on slices of bovine cortical bone as compared to samples of commercially available bone substitute biomaterials. It also examined the surface characteristics of these materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 11 materials tested fell into 3 groups: (1) bone-derived, including freeze-dried human rib block, human demineralized freeze-dried bone, and deproteinated bovine bone; (2) synthetic hydroxyapatites (HA); and (3) synthetic non-HA, including coated methacrylates and coated silica glass. After 4 days in culture, 1 group of samples of each material underwent scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate resorptive pitting versus controls, while another group underwent tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and light microscopy to examine osteoclast numbers and morphology. The 2 bovine-derived HA materials also underwent immunohistochemical staining and surface chemistry analysis. RESULTS: While most of these materials supported osteoclast attachment, some spreading, and survival in culture, only the bone-derived materials, with the exception of sintered deproteinated bovine bone, showed large scalloped-edged resorption pits with trails and exposed collagen when examined by SEM, although not to the same extent as unprocessed natural bone material. The HA materials and the sintered deproteinated bovine bone showed evidence of etching with smaller pits but no evidence of resorptive trail formation. The non-HA materials showed no evidence of pit formation or trails. Under immunohistochemical staining, Bio-Oss appeared to be positive for type I collagen after osteoclast activity on its surface, while Osteograf/N showed no positive staining. Surface chemistry analysis revealed nitrogen present in Bio-Oss specimens (0.17% to 0.47%), while there was no nitrogen detected in the Osteograf/N (0.00%); the percent nitrogen observed in normal bovine bone controls was 6.01% to 9.25%. DISCUSSION: The bone-derived materials supported osteoclast activity on the material surface in a way that facilitated formation of the more complex resorption pits in vitro. Assuming the rate of pit formation observed in vitro mimics that observed in vivo, the quantity and type of osteoclastic remodeling seen on non-bone-derived materials--and perhaps sintered bone-derived materials--would be extremely slow to negligible. Physiologic removal of non-bone-derived bone substitutes in vivo may occur by methods other than osteoclast resorption. CONCLUSIONS: Allogenous and xenogenous bone-derived materials that undergo delayed physiologic resorption may be more appropriately used with a staged surgical approach when used in sites intended to support osseointegrated dental implants. The combination of collagen staining and the presence of nitrogen suggest that there may be residual protein in Bio-Oss.

In vitro osteogenetic activity of pearl
Shen, Y., J. Zhu, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(2): 281-7.
Abstract: In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that shell nacre and hydroxyapatite (HA) are promising bioactive materials for bone repair. In this work, the osteogenetic activity of pearl is evaluated by soaking it in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cell culture, taking shell nacre and HA as control materials at the same time. After soaking in SBF, HA particles were rapidly formed on the surface of pearl, the dissolution of CaCO3 and the binding between organic components and Ca2+ ions in pearl provide favorable conditions for the HA precipitation, and the whole process follows a dissolution-binding-precipitation mechanism. Calcium surplus, not conventional calcium deficiency, is found in HA crystal structure; it implies that type B-HA is formed on pearl surface in this study. HRTEM observation shows that HA is poorly crystallized with so many dislocations and shuttle-like amorphous areas. Cell culture reveals that pearl could stimulate osteoblast proliferation, which proceeded more quickly and smoothly than that on shell nacre and HA, and abundant extracellular matrix occupied the whole pearl surface by 5 days. It is concluded that pearl is a superior osteoinductive material with high osteogenetic activity.

In vitro pathological model of osteopenia to test orthopaedic biomaterials
Torricelli, P., M. Fini, et al. (2000), Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 28(2): 181-92.
Abstract: The association of in vitro tests and in vivo bone implants, has significantly improved the characterization of biomaterials for orthopaedic devices before their clinical use. However, neither cell cultures nor most animals models used for these tests entirely reflect the clinical conditions in which biomaterials are implanted. Pathological animal models are considered to substantially improve our knowledge of osteointegration of biomaterials; for this reason researchers increasingly use aged, osteopenic or arthritic animals in their experimental tests. The development of "pathological cell cultures" would also be of great importance for the study of biomaterials. It would allow a complete material evaluation, beginning with a biocompatibility test to a more finalized and specific preclinical evaluation. The present study, looks at the possibility of using cell culture methodology for the improvement of in vitro biomaterials characterization in the case of osteopenia. Cultures derived from normal (NB-OST) rats were compared to those of osteopenic (OB-OST) rats, by testing the osteoblasts against common parameters of characterization. Moreover, the reaction of these cultures to two biological glasses of known in vivo behavior (both in normal and osteopenic bone) by means of parameters on biocompatibility and bone formation index, was evaluated. Our results showed that there was no evidence of differences between the NB-OST and OB-OST cultures. After 6 days of culturing, the bioglass that did not osteointegrate in osteopenic animals, did not induce cytotoxicity in NB-OST, but a significative reduction of viability and Osteocalcin level in OB-OST was observed. We think that these data should stimulate researchers to develop further tests in order to improve preliminary in vitro comprehension on biomaterials.

In vitro platelet interactions in whole human blood exposed to biomaterial surfaces: insights on blood compatibility
Haycox, C. L. and B. D. Ratner (1993), J Biomed Mater Res 27(9): 1181-93.
Abstract: A short-term in vitro test to study platelet interactions with biomaterials is described. Using fresh human blood and a modified Chandler loop system, beta-thromboglobulin release was measured. Also, adherent platelets were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a colorimetric stain specific for human platelet GPIIIa. Materials studied in these experiments were polyethylene (PE), Biomer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and a polyurethane prepared with octadecyl pendant groups (ODCE). Four blood reactions were observed: (1) Platelets continually adhere and activate on the Biomer; (2) platelets initially adhere and activate but then spread to a thin, passivating film on the PE; (3) platelets do not adhere to the PVA surface but continually react with it upon contact; and (4) platelets neither adhere to nor activate on the ODCE surface. Reactions (2) and (4) are considered characteristic of blood-compatible materials.

In vitro properties of PLLA screws and novel bioabsorbable implant with elastic nucleus to replace intervertebral disc
Ella, V., M. Kellomaki, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(7): 655-62.
Abstract: The suitability of two different implant types for the replacement of the intervertebral disc was studied in vitro. Self-reinforced poly-L-lactide (SR-PLLA) screws O 4.5 mm were studied 24 weeks in vitro and cylindrical implants with elastic nucleus made of poly(L/D)lactide 96/4, poly(L/DL)lactide 70/30, Bioactive Glass n:o 13-93 and Polyactive 1000PEOT70PBT30 were studied 15 weeks in vitro. The cylindrical implant mimics the size and shape of the intervertebral disc. During the in vitro, there were no changes in compression properties with either implant types. The screws had sufficient modulus for intervertebral ossification in the canine model and the cylindrical implant showed also sufficient mechanical properties. These results suggest that both implant types could be used in clinical testing.

In vitro reaction of macrophages to metal ions from dental biomaterials
Wataha, J. C., C. T. Hanks, et al. (1995), Dent Mater 11(4): 239-45.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to 1) measure the sensitivity of human and mouse macrophages to metal ions which are released from dental biomaterials, 2) compare these sensitivities with those of other cell types in the oral cavity, and 3) determine if metal ions alter the metabolism and synthetic processes of these cells at lower concentrations than are required to lyse the cells. This information will help define the biological risks associated with the release of metal ions into the oral cavity. METHODS: Macrophages were exposed to a range of concentrations of Ag1+, Au3+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, Pt4+, and Zn2+ for 24 h in cell culture. The concentrations which caused a 50% decrease in succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, protein production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were measured and compared with these values for fibroblasts and osteoblasts. RESULTS: Most metal ions caused alteration in SDH activity and protein production at lower concentrations than were required to induce LDH release. There were exceptions to this trend, and the differences were not always statistically significant. Furthermore, although the macrophages sometimes had statistically different sensitivities to metal ions than fibroblasts or osteoblasts, these differences were less than one order of magnitude. Macrophage response to the metal ions was highly dependent on the metal ion and the species of macrophage. SIGNIFICANCE: Macrophages react adversely to metal ions at similar concentrations as other cell types found in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the concentrations which affect cell metabolism and protein production are generally lower than those which lyse the cells. Thus, non-lethal concentrations of metal ions may alter the secretion of protein inflammatory mediators such as cytokines which direct the inflammatory response in tissues.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006