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Fibrin-polyurethane composites for articular cartilage tissue engineering: a preliminary analysis
Lee, C. R., S. Grad, et al. (2005), Tissue Eng 11(9-10): 1562-73.
Abstract: In this study we investigated the use of a fibrin hydrogel to improve the potential of a polyurethane (PU) scaffold-based system for articular cartilage tissue engineering. PU-only ("no-fibrin") and PU-fibrin ("fibrin") composites were cultured for up to 28 days and analyzed for DNA content, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, type II collagen content, GAG release, and gene expression of aggrecan, collagen I, and collagen II. The use of fibrin allowed for higher viable cell-seeding efficiency (10% higher DNA content on day 2 in fibrin versus no-fibrin composites) and more even cell distribution on seeding, a more than 3-fold increase in the percentage of newly synthesized GAG retained in the constructs, and 2- to 6-fold higher levels of type II collagen and aggrecan gene expression through day 14. Addition of aprotinin to the medium inhibited fibrin degradation, most noticeably in the center of the constructs, but had little effect on biochemical composition or gene expression. Short-term mechanical compression (0-10% sinusoidal strain at 0.1 Hz for 1 h, applied twice daily for 3 days) doubled the rate of GAG release from the constructs, but had little effect on gene expression, regardless of the presence of fibrin. Although further work is needed to optimize this system, the addition of fibrin hydrogel to encapsulate cells in the stiff, macroporous PU scaffold is a step forward in our approach to articular cartilage tissue engineering.

Fibroblast expression of C-C chemokines in response to orthopaedic biomaterial particle challenge in vitro
Yaszay, B., M. C. Trindade, et al. (2001), J Orthop Res 19(5): 970-6.
Abstract: C-C chemokines are soluble mediators that occur in a periprosthetic granuloma and influence recruitment, localization and activation of inflammatory cells. This study tested effects of titanium and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles on expression of selected C-C chemokines in cultured human fibroblasts. The C-C chemokines analyzed included monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. 2 (MCP-1. 2), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) served as a known stimulator of chemokine release while interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression served as a marker for fibroblast activation. Protein and mRNA signal levels were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. The results demonstrated that exposure of fibroblasts to titanium and PMMA particles resulted in increased release of MCP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 24 h, titanium particles maximally upregulated MCP-1 release 7-fold while PMMA particles increased MCP-1 levels 2-fold, when compared to unchallenged fibroblasts. MCP-2, MIP-1 alpha and RANTES levels remained unchanged following exposure of fibroblasts to titanium or PMMA particles at any concentration or time point tested. However, IL-1 beta stimulated release of MCP-1, MCP-2, and RANTES, but not MIP-1 alpha from the fibroblasts. IL-1 beta, not particles, exhibited the most prominent effect on MCP-1 mRNA levels. Increased release of MCP-1 from fibroblasts exposed to titanium and PMMA particles coincided with increased release of IL-6. This study suggests that release of chemoattractant factors from fibroblasts localized in periprosthetic membranes enhances the chronic inflammatory process leading to bone resorption and implant loosening.

Fibronectin preadsorbed on hydroxyapatite together with rough surface structure increases osteoblasts' adhesion "in vitro": the theoretical usefulness of fibronectin preadsorption on hydroxyapatite to increase permanent stability and longevity in spine implants
Deligianni, D., P. Korovessis, et al. (2005), J Spinal Disord Tech 18(3): 257-62.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of fibronectin (FN) preadsorption to enhance osteoblast adhesion and strength on hydroxyapatite (HA) used either as osteoconductive bone substitute or precoating of pedicle screws and cages in spine surgery. METHODS: HA substrata with two different surface roughness values (rough HA180 and smooth HA1200) were produced, and human osteoblasts were seeded after culturing on them. Prior to osteoblast seeding, the HA substrata were immersed in FN solution. Osteoblast attachment on each of the two HA substrata was evaluated by recording the number of cells, whereas osteoblast adhesion strength was determined by measuring the shear stress required to detach the cells from the HA substrates. RESULTS: FN preadsorption increased the number of attached osteoblasts on smooth and rough HA substratum at 40% and 62%, respectively, whereas it increased osteoblast attachment strength on the smooth and rough substratum at 165% and 73%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that FN preadsorption and rough HA surface texture synergistically increased "in vitro" both the number and the adhesion strength of human osteoblasts. Further studies in primates and humans should be carried out to disclose the clinical relevance (increase implant's stability and longevity) of the above-mentioned observations.

Fibrovascularization of intraorbital hydroxyapatite-coated alumina sphere in rabbits
Chung, W. S., S. J. Song, et al. (2005), Korean J Ophthalmol 19(1): 9-17.
Abstract: We investigated the fibrovascular ingrowth and fibrovascular tissue maturation of hydroxyapatite-coated, porous alumina sphere (Alumina sphere) in comparison with the hydroxyapatite sphere (HAp sphere) in rabbits. Alumina spheres and HAp spheres were implanted in the left orbits of 42 New Zealand white rabbits after enucleation. Fibrovascular ingrowth and maturation were graded from 1 to 5 at postoperative 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks. We defined 4 phases: postoperative 1-2 weeks as phase I, 3-4 weeks as phase II, 8-12 weeks as phase III, and 24 weeks as phase IV. The grade was analyzed at each phases. There was no significant difference in fibrovascular ingrowth and maturation between the two groups at all 4 phases, except phase II at which the Alumina sphere showed significantly lower maturation grade (p<0.05). We concluded that the Alumina sphere is an ideal orbital implant material and an ideal substitute for the HAp sphere in clinical practice.

Filling agents
Glavas, I. P. (2005), Ophthalmol Clin North Am 18(2): 249-57, v-vi.
Abstract: Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

Film formation from colloidal dispersions stabilized by sugar derivatives and their controllable release for selective protein adsorption
Bae, W. S., D. J. Lestage, et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(5): 2615-21.
Abstract: Although the use of sugar and sugar derivatives has been documented in polymer research for many years, there are no reports that would utilize these species as polymerization sites of colloidal polymeric particles that, later on, may be released during particle coalescence to form films with surfaces that differentiate protein adsorption. These studies show that, when n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) is utilized for the synthesis and stabilization of poly[methyl methacrylate-co-(n-butyl acrylate)] (p-MMA/nBA) colloidal particles, upon particle coalescence DDM stratifies near the film-air (F-A) interface. By using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and internal reflection infrared imaging (IRIRI), comparative adsorption studies on p-MMA/nBA surfaces exposed to globulin (Glo), fibrinogen (Fib), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) reveal that the presence of DDM selectively inhibits Glo and Fib adsorption, but does not affect BSA. The presence of DDM also enhances the rate of mobility of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (SDOSS) resulting from interactions between DDM and SDOSS moieties, and the surface morphologies change as a result of concentration variations of DDM in the colloidal dispersions.

Film techniques for vibrational circular dichroism measurements
Shanmugam, G. and P. L. Polavarapu (2005), Appl Spectrosc 59(5): 673-81.
Abstract: Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra in the 1800-900 cm(-1) region have been measured recently for protein films and for carbohydrate films prepared from aqueous solutions. In addition to the advantages of avoiding the interference from strong infrared absorption of water at 1650 cm(-1) and requiring a two-orders-of-magnitude-smaller amount of sample for film measurements (than those required for the same in water solutions), the VCD bands in film measurements are found to be the same as those in solution measurements and to be independent of film orientation. This latter observation indicated the possibility for routine VCD measurements in the film state. In this manuscript we report different film techniques for VCD measurements. These techniques include preparation of supported films, free-standing films, film-on-film, and facilitation of film formation for substances that otherwise do not form amorphous films. The experimental data for films prepared by each of these techniques are presented and the relative merits of these different methods are discussed.

Finite element analysis of covered microstents
Gu, L., S. Santra, et al. (2005), J Biomech 38(6): 1221-7.
Abstract: Currently available neuroendovascular devices are inadequate for effective treatment of many wide-necked or fusiform intracranial aneurysms and intracranial carotid-cavernous fistulae (CCF). Placing a covered microstent across the intracranial aneurysm neck and CCF rent could restore normal vessel morphology by preventing blood flow into the aneurysm lumen or CCF rent. To fabricate covered microstents, our research group has developed highly flexible ultra thin (approximately 150 microm) silicone coverings and elastomerically captured them onto commercially available metal stents without stitching. Preliminary in vivo studies were conducted by placing these covered microstents in the common carotid artery of rabbits. The feasibility of using covered stents was demonstrated. However, the cover affected the deployment pressure and the stents failed occasionally during deployment due to tearing of the cover. Appropriate modeling of covered stents will assist in designing suitable coverings, and help to reduce the failure rate of covered microstents. The purpose of this study is to use the finite element method to determine the mechanical properties of the covered microstent and investigate the effects of the covering on the mechanical behavior of the covered microstent. Variations in the mechanical properties of the covered microstent such as deployment pressure, elastic recoil and longitudinal shortening due to change in thickness and material properties of the cover have been investigated. This work is also important for custom design of covered microstents such as adding cutout holes to save adjacent perforating arteries.

Finite element analysis of the release of slowly dissolving drugs from cylindrical matrix systems
Frenning, G., U. Brohede, et al. (2005), J Control Release 107(2): 320-9.
Abstract: Drug release from matrix systems of cylindrical shape is analyzed in detail by using the finite element method. The model used combines the Noyes-Whitney and diffusion equations, and thus takes the effects of a finite dissolution rate into account. The model is valid for all drug solubilities and dissolution rates, and allows accurate predictions of the drug release to be made. Anisotropic drug transport that may result from the manufacturing process is properly accounted for. Model calculations show that a finite dissolution rate may affect the release profile significantly, producing an initial delay. The equivalence between anisotropic release and isotropic release from a matrix with different dimensions is demonstrated. Comparisons are made with the predictions of a recently proposed pseudo-steady state (PSS) analysis of drug release from cylindrical matrices [Y. Zhou, J. S. Chu, T. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Modeling of dispersed-drug release from two-dimensional matrix tablets, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 945-952]. This comparison reveals that important discrepancies exist between the numerical and analytical results, which are attributed to the simplifying assumption made in the PSS analysis that the region containing solid drug remains cylindrical in shape throughout the release process. The proposed model is shown to describe experimental release data well.

Finite element implementation of a generalized Fung-elastic constitutive model for planar soft tissues
Sun, W. and M. S. Sacks (2005), Biomech Model Mechanobiol
Abstract: Numerical simulations of the anisotropic mechanical properties of soft tissues and tissue-derived biomaterials using accurate constitutive models remain an important and challenging research area in biomechanics. While most constitutive modeling efforts have focused on the characterization of experimental data, only limited studies are available on the feasibility of utilizing those models in complex computational applications. An example is the widely utilized exponential constitutive model proposed by Fung. Although present in the biomechanics literature for several decades, implementation of this model into finite element (FE) simulations has been limited. A major reason for limited numerical implementations are problems associated with inherent numerical instability and convergence. To address this issue, we developed and applied two restrictions for a generalized Fung-elastic constitutive model necessary to achieve numerical stability. These are (1) convexity of the strain energy function, and (2) the condition number of material stiffness matrix set lower than a prescribed value. These constraints were implemented in the nonlinear regression used for constitutive model parameter estimation to the experimental biaxial mechanical data. We then implemented the generalized Fung-elastic model into a commercial FE code (ABAQUS, Pawtucket, RI, USA). Single element and multi-element planar biaxial test simulations were conducted to verify the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. Results indicated that numerical convergence and accurate FE implementation were consistently obtained. The present study thus presents an integrated framework for accurate and robust implementation of pseudo-elastic constitutive models for planar soft tissues. Moreover, since our approach is formulated within a general FE code, it can be straightforwardly adopted across multiple software platforms.

First efficacy and safety results with the antibody containing leukocyte inhibition module in cardiac surgery patients with neutrophil hyperactivity
Scholz, M., J. Cinatl, et al. (2005), Asaio J 51(2): 144-7.
Abstract: Systemic administration of immune modulating antibodies may play an important role in reducing neutrophil hyperactivity, for example, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation or in trauma patients. However, this strategy has extremely high costs and is often associated with severe adverse effects. We developed the Leukocyte-Inhibition-Module (LIM), an extracorporeal circulation (ECC) device housing a polyurethane matrix with covalently bound Fas (CD95; APO-1) stimulating antibodies to rapidly prevent neutrophil hyperactivation. A feasibility study with 14 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of immunogenic ECC without (n = 5) and with (n = 9) LIM (venous line) was performed. Our data show that the usually observed ECC associated perioperative increase in neutrophils (control) was prevented by LIM (p = 0.023). Moreover, the increase of the proinflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and polymorphonuclear elastase was limited by LIM (p = 0.038 and p = 0.002). In both groups, no significant changes in liver enzymes or in clotting were detected after surgery, and up to 12 months follow up, no unusual complications were reported. This study shows for the first time to our knowledge the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a new cost effective, immune management strategy in patients with aberrant immune activation by exposing the blood stream to immobilized agonistic anti-Fas antibodies.

First latin american congress for artificial organs and biomaterials
Andrade, A. and M. Pinotti (2000), Artif Organs 24(3): 167.

Five-year clinical, radiological and postmortem results of the Cambridge Cup in patients with displaced fractures of the neck of the femur
Field, R. E. and N. Rushton (2005), J Bone Joint Surg Br 87(10): 1344-51.
Abstract: The Cambridge Cup has been designed to replace the horseshoe-shaped articular cartilage of the acetabulum and the underlying subchondral bone. It is intended to provide physiological loading with minimal resection of healthy bone.The cup has been used in 50 women with displaced, subcapital fractures of the neck of the femur. In 24 cases, the cup was coated with hydroxyapatite. In 26, the coating was removed before implantation in order to simulate the effect of long-term resorption.The mean Barthel index and the Charnley-modified Merle d'Aubigne scores recovered to their levels before fracture. We reviewed 30 women at two years, 21 were asymptomatic and nine reported minimal pain. The mean scores deteriorated slightly after five years reflecting the comorbidity of advancing age. Patients with the hydroxyapatite-coated components remained asymptomatic, with no wear or loosening. The uncoated components migrated after four years and three required revision. This trial shows good early results using a novel, hydroxyapatite-coated, physiological acetabular component.

Flow cytometric study of in vitro neutrophil activation by biomaterials
Gorbet, M. B., E. L. Yeo, et al. (1999), J Biomed Mater Res 44(3): 289-97.
Abstract: Neutrophil activation for adherent and nonadherent cells, as measured by flow cytometry, was not strongly dependent on material surface chemistry. We had hypothesized that material-induced neutrophil activation was an important parameter associated with material failure. All materials tested [cellophane, an acrylonitrile copolymer (AN69), Pellethane, nylon, polyethylene terephthalate, low density polyethylene, and polydimethylsiloxane] activated isolated human neutrophils, which were resuspended in plasma or serum, to similar extents based on L-selectin shedding, CD11b upregulation, and stimulation of the oxidative burst after 30-min exposure. Inhibition of complement activation by sCR1 unexpectedly had little effect if any on nonadherent neutrophils. However, neutrophil adhesion, but not the level of activation of the adherent cells, was strongly dependent on complement activation. Pretreatment with albumin did not inhibit adhesion or reduce neutrophil activation, but plasma pretreatment resulted in increased activation for nonadherent and adherent cells. More adhesion and a higher level of activation of adherent cells was observed following pretreatment with fibrinogen, a ligand of CD11b. Taken together these results suggest that upon contact with a material, neutrophil activation may occur though mechanisms that are not mediated by complement. For example, the presence of plasma proteins such as fibrinogen at the interface may trigger activation and the release of other activating agents. Although the material differences are small, the extent of activation may be significant and warrant further study of the mechanism and consequences of that activation.

Flow injection fluorescence immunoassay for gentamicin using sol-gel-derived mesoporous biomaterial
Yang, H. H., Q. Z. Zhu, et al. (2002), Anal Biochem 308(1): 71-6.
Abstract: Sol-gel-derived mesoporous biomaterials were used for the first time in the flow-injection fluorescence immunoassay system. Anti-gentamicin antibody was immobilized in a mesoporous sol-gel material using tetramethoxysilane as a precursor and poly(ethylene glycol) as a template. The sol-gel glass was used to develop an immunoaffinity column for the flow-injection immunoassay of gentamicin. Little unspecific adsorption of gentamicin on the sol-gel and no antibody leaching under harsh elution conditions were found. The immunoassay is based on the competition between gentamicin and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled gentamicin for a limited number of encapsulated antibody binding sites. NaOH solution of 5 x 10(-3)mol/L is used for the regeneration of encapsulated antibody binding sites after each measurement, which allows the immunoreactor to be used for up to 20 times without any loss of reactivity. Sample preconcentration is not needed and a single assay can be performed within 10 min. The calibration for gentamicin has a working range of 250-5000 ng/mL with a detection limit of 200 ng/mL, which is close to that of the fluorescence immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay using the same reactants. Comparison of the results from this method with that obtained from HPLC showed an excellent correlation.

Flow-through ultrasonic emulsification combined with static micromixing for aseptic production of microspheres by solvent extraction
Freitas, S., B. Rudolf, et al. (2005), Eur J Pharm Biopharm 61(3): 181-7.
Abstract: Final sterilisation of drug-loaded polymeric microspheres is problematic as dry heat or steam sterilisation are not applicable, and gamma-irradiation may result in radiolytic scission of the polymer chains, and potentially damage the bioactive compound. Therefore, aseptic production is the method of choice to obtain a sterile product. A novel process for the production of microspheres is introduced based on the principle of double emulsion-solvent extraction. The process uses a flow-through ultrasonic cell for the preparation of the primary emulsion, in combination with a static micromixer for the production of the double emulsion. Because of its small scale, the equipment is readily accommodated in a laminar air-flow cabinet or an isolator. Thanks to the low technical complexity and easy handling of the process, only minimal manual interventions is required. Finally, the possibility for in-place cleaning and sterilisation makes the equipment and process well suited for aseptic microsphere preparation. Microspheres were prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) served as model protein for microencapsulation. The BSA-in-PLGA (w/o) emulsions produced by the ultrasonic flow-through cell exhibited mean droplet sizes of <700 nm. Further processing into microspheres of 15-40 microm mean diameter resulted in approx. 70% BSA encapsulation efficiency. Batch-to-batch reproducibility was excellent. Microsphere batches produced under aseptic conditions to assure product sterility exhibited no microbial contamination when examined by a simplified sterility test. The presented technology offers great potential for aseptic microsphere production for batch-sizes suitable, e.g. for clinical investigations. Complete validation of product sterility would, however, demand more extended tests.

Fluorapatite-mullite glass sputter coated Ti6Al4V for biomedical applications
Bibby, J. K., N. L. Bubb, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(5): 379-85.
Abstract: A number of bioactive ceramics have been researched since the development of Bioglass in the 1970's. Fluorapatite mullite has been developed from the dental glass-ceramics used for more general hard tissue replacement. Being brittle in nature, glass-ceramics are currently used mainly as coatings. This paper shows that fluorapatite glass LG112 can be used as a sputtered glass coating on roughened surfaces of Ti6Al4V for possible future use for medical implants. An AFM was used to measure the roughness of the surface before and after coating to determine the change in the topography due to the coating process as this greatly affects cell attachment. The sputter coating partially filled in the artificially roughened surface, changing the prepared topography. Osteoblasts have been successfully grown on the surface of these coatings, showing biocompatibility with bone tissue and therefore potential use in hard tissue repair.

Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid by scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy
Muramatsu, H., N. Chiba, et al. (1996), Scanning Microsc 10(4): 975-82.
Abstract: We have developed scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy (SNOM/AFM). The SNOM/AFM uses a bent optical fiber simultaneously as a dynamic force AFM cantilever and a SNOM probe. Resonant frequency of the optical fiber cantilever is 15-40 kHz. Optical resolution of the SNOM/AFM images shows less than 50 nm. The SNOM/AFM system contains photon counting system and polychrometer/intensified coupled charge devise (ICCD) system to observe fluorescence image and spectrograph of micro areas, respectively. Cultured cells were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-keratin antibody or FITC-labeled phalloidin after treatment with Triton X-100. Fluorescence and topographic images were obtained in air and water. The fluorescence images showed clear images of keratin and actin filaments. The SNOM/AFM is perfect to observe biomaterials in liquid with a liquid chamber while the topographic Images showed subcellular structures which correspond to keratin and actin filaments.

Fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes offers adequate detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in clinical samples
Waar, K., J. E. Degener, et al. (2005), J Med Microbiol 54(Pt 10): 937-44.
Abstract: Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Reliable and quick identification of E. faecalis and E. faecium is important for accurate treatment and understanding their role in the pathogenesis of infections. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of whole bacterial cells with oligonucleotides targeted at the 16S rRNA molecule leads to a reduced time to identification. In clinical practice, FISH therefore can be used in situations in which quick identification is necessary for optimal treatment of the patient. Furthermore, the abundance, spatial distribution and bacterial cell morphology can be observed in situ. This report describes the design of two fluorescent-labelled oligonucleotides that, respectively, detect the 16S rRNA of E. faecalis and the 16S rRNA of E. faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus villorum and Enterococcus saccharolyticus. Different protocols for the application of these oligonucleotides with FISH in different clinical samples such as faeces or blood cultures are given. Enterococci in a biofilm attached to a biomaterial were also visualized. Embedding of the biomaterial preserved the morphology and therefore the architecture of the biofilm could be observed. The usefulness of other studies describing FISH for detection of enterococci is generally hampered by the fact that they have only focused on one material and one protocol to detect the enterococci. However, the results of this study show that the probes can be used both in the routine laboratory to detect and determine the enterococcal species in different clinical samples and in a research setting to enumerate and detect the enterococci in their physical environment.

Fluorometric assay for detection and quantitation of polyamidoamine dendrimers
Sharma, A., M. Rao, et al. (2005), Anal Biochem 344(1): 70-5.
Abstract: Polyamidoamine dendrimers are protein-like nanomaterials that have many potential biological applications. Research studies using dendrimers often require their detection and quantitation. This article describes a simple, inexpensive, and rapid fluorometric assay based on the ability of dendrimers to bind the fluorescent probe, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid. This interaction leads to an enhanced fluorescence intensity of the dye that shows a linear relationship with dendrimer concentration. The procedure is applicable to dendrimers that have various surface functional groups and internal cores. Amine- and hydroxyl-terminated dendrimers gave the best calibration curves under alkaline conditions (pH 7.4). Carboxyl-terminated dendrimers required acidic conditions for their measurement. The assay for dendrimers with an amine surface and an ethylene diamine core was accurate between 0 and 100 microM and produced a within-run coefficient of less than 5%. Under the assay conditions used, the fluorescence signal strength was dependent on type of surface group and core length of the dendrimer.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006