|Articles about Biomaterials|
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| Construction of anti-adhesive and antibacterial multilayer films via layer-by-layer assembly of heparin and chitosan
Fu, J., J. Ji, et al. (2005), Biomaterials 26(33): 6684-92.
Abstract: Chitosan as an antibacterial agent and heparin as an anti-adhesive agent were alternatively deposited onto aminolyzed poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films to construct anti-adhesive and antibacterial multilayer films. The contact-angle and UV data verified the progressive buildup of the multilayer film by alternate deposition of the polyelectrolytes. The properties of multilayer films were investigated by contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and UV spectra. The results of initial adhesion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on PET substrates showed that the number of E. coli adhered onto the control PET was in a much greater extent than onto the chitosan/heparin multilayer films, and the number of adhesive bacteria decreased with a decrease in assembly pH. The in vitro antibacterial test indicated that a multilayer of chitosan/heparin could kill the bacteria effectively. The number of viable bacteria decreased by 7% after 7 h in contact with the control PET films, but by 46-68% for the multilayer-modified PET films. Only 3-8% of the cells were viable for the multilayer-modified PET films after 24h. It is interesting to find the assembly pH has a remarkable effect on the antibacterial property of the multilayer. The number of viable bacteria on the multilayer assembled at pH = 3.8, 2.9 and 6.0 decreased by 68%, 58% and 46%, respectively. Such an easy processing and shape-independent method to prepare an anti-adhesive and antibacterial surface may have good potential for surface modification of cardiovascular devices.
| Contact allergy to gold in patients with gold-plated intracoronary stents
Svedman, C., C. Tillman, et al. (2005), Contact Dermatitis 52(4): 192-6.
Abstract: An increasingly common and effective method for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting. The stents are made of different metals. An increased rate of restenosis when using gold-plated stents has been shown. Contact allergy to gold is common in many countries. Recently, a study has shown an increased rate of contact allergy to nickel among patients with restenosis and a nickel-containing stent. The aims of our study were to investigate whether there was an increased rate of contact allergy to gold among patients with gold-plated stents and if this increased the risk of restenosis. 22 patients who had received a gold-plated stent were patch tested. An age- and sex-matched population of 88 patients, previously patch tested because of a suspected contact dermatitis, served as controls. In the stent group, 10/22 (45.5%) had a contact allergy to gold, in the control group 18/88 (20.5%); the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference regarding frequency of restenosis. Our study indicates that there is a risk of sensitizing the patient when implanting a gold-plated stent. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate whether there is an increased risk of restenosis.
| Contact angle measurement on dental implant biomaterials
Mekayarajjananonth, T. and S. Winkler (1999), J Oral Implantol 25(4): 230-6.
Abstract: Wettability may be one of the surface factors to be considered when selecting dental implant biomaterials. Contact angles of dental implant surface preparations influence wettability and tissue adhesion. The contact angles of eight implant surface preparations were determined in this study. Contact angles were measured by a tele-microscope equipped with a protractor eyepiece. Groups 1 to 6 had a Ti6Al4V substrate. Group 1 was metallurgically polished, group 2 was blasted with 180 microns Al2O3, group 3 was blasted with 710 microns Al2O3, group 4 was hydroxyapatite (HA) blasted (125 microns), group 5 had a Calcitite HA plasma-sprayed coating, and group 6 was coated with plasma-sprayed MP-1 HA. Group 7 was metallurgically polished commercially pure (CP) titanium (grade 1), and group 8 was etched CP titanium (grade 1). Contact angles were measured 30 times for each group with distilled water and glycerol, and the determinations were statistically analyzed. Mean contact angles for groups 1 to 8 were 65.5, 65.3, 62.5, 67.9, 46.6, 81.7, 58.5, and 69.0, respectively, when tested with distilled water, and 70.7, 68.3, 81.6, 75.4, 67.1, 70.7, 62.3, and 82.5, respectively, when tested with glycerol. Analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences between group 5 and all other groups when groups were tested with distilled water and demonstrated no significant differences between groups 5 and 7 when groups were tested with glycerol. Surface preparation of implant biomaterials affects wettability. In this study, Ti6Al4V coated with Calcitite HA had the lowest contact angles and the best wettability.
| Contour of the lower third of the face using an intramusculary injectable implant
Nacul, A. M. (2005), Aesthetic Plast Surg 29(4): 222-9.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The mandible contour plays a major role in the beauty and youthful look of the face. Few methods are available to create or recover facial contours. The author advocates the use of injectable polymethylmethacrylate microspheres suspended in a solution of sodium hyluronate 2%, D-1 propanodiol 10%, and apyrogenous solution 2.5 ml, applied by means of a minimally invasive procedure into deep anatomic planes. The biomatertal is injected in the muscle using microcannulas. METHODS: A review of charts from January of 2001 to December of 2003 was undertaken to search the clinical outcomes from this therapy. RESULTS: This technique for contouring the lower third of the face has been used for 487 patients along 1,383 different sites. There were no significant complications. CONCLUSIONS: Excellent results and a high degree of satisfaction were achieved among the patients and the medical staff.
| Contouring of cranial vault irregularities with hydroxyapatite cement: a clinical and experimental investigation
Honig, J. F., H. A. Merten, et al. (2005), J Craniofac Surg 16(3): 457-60.
Abstract: The biocompatible hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) is a welcome alternative to the traditional use of autogenous bone for postoperative corrections of cranial vault irregularities. The authors performed experimental studies to show the safety and osseointegration capacity of HAC on animal models and confirm the osseous replacement without toxic reactions. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the clinical outcome after correction of secondary cranial vault irregularities with HAC. Twenty-one patients were treated for residual cranial frontal bone defects after craniotomy with HAC (Bone Source, Stryker Leibinger GmbH, D-79111 Freiburg, Germany). The average age was 38.5 years (range, 23-57 years). All of the patients were male. The average volume per patient was 53.83 g. The volume implanted ranged from 25 to 125 g; in all cases the dura was covered with bone. Irregularities resulted from sunken bone. The authors' clinical series demonstrates that a satisfactory and aesthetically pleasing result can be achieved in one surgical intervention in patients for surgical correction of postoperative cranial vault irregularities using HAC. It permits osseointegration, which makes it relatively resistant to infection. HAC is easy to apply and shape to suit individual needs. HAC is a welcome alternative to the traditional use of autogenous bone for postoperative corrections of cranial vault irregularities.
| Contrast and glare sensitivity after implantation of AcrySof and Human Optics 1CU intraocular lenses
Kamppeter, B. A., G. Sauder, et al. (2005), Eur J Ophthalmol 15(4): 458-61.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate contrast and glare sensitivity of a newly developed, potentially accommodative intraocular lens. METHODS: The clinical interventional prospective randomized study included 20 patients (23 eyes) undergoing standard phacoemulsification with clear cornea incision in topical anesthesia. In the study group (10 eyes), the 1CU Human Optics intraocular lens (optics diameter 5.5 mm) was implanted. The control group (13 eyes) received the monofocal AcrySof intraocular lens (optics diameter: 6.0 mm). Using a newly developed contrast measuring device, contrast and glare sensitivity were tested 4 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: The study group and control group did not vary significantly in contrast (p=0.38) or glare sensitivity (p=0.52). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the newly developed 1CU Human Optics intraocular lens and the standard AcrySof intraocular lens do not vary significantly in glare and contrast sensitivity.
| Contribution of chitosan and its derivatives to cancer chemotherapy
Kato, Y., H. Onishi, et al. (2005), In Vivo 19(1): 301-10.
Abstract: The conjugates of some kinds of anticancer agents with chitin and chitosan derivatives display good anticancer effects with a decrease in the adverse effects of the original drug due to a predominant distribution into the cancer and a gradual release of free drug from the conjugates. For instance, doxifluridine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) were conjugated with chitosan via glutaric spacer, and the conjugates of Ara-C with chitosan, in particular, showed a good antitumour effect against P388-bearing leukemia model mice. Glycol-chitosan (G-Chi) was distributed mainly in the systemic circulation and the kidney after i.v. administration into normal mice, and retained long in the kidney. The therapeutic effect of the conjugates of mitomycin C (MMC) with G-Chi was not necessarily improved in comparison with that of the free drug, but toxic side-effects appeared to decrease with the conjugates. The conjugates of MMC with 6-O-carboxymethyl-chitin showed almost complete suppression of tumour growth at 10 mg eq. MMC/kg, though a lethal adverse effect was also observed. The conjugates of MMC with N-succinyl-chitosan showed good antitumour activities against various tumour models due to their predominant distribution into the tumour tissue and sustained-release characteristics, irrespective of water-insoluble and -soluble formulations. It is believed that the chitin and chitosan derivatives discussed in this review are good candidates for a polymeric drug carrier in cancer chemotherapy.
| Control of cellular organization in three dimensions using a microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane-collagen composite tissue scaffold
Norman, J. J. and T. A. Desai (2005), Tissue Eng 11(3-4): 378-86.
Abstract: Parallel channels of various dimensions have been shown to cause a monolayer of cells in culture to align in the direction of the channels. For the engineering of complex organ systems to become a reality, similar control over the cellular microenvironment in three dimensions must be achieved. Using microfabrication, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffold (40 microm wide, 70-microm-deep parallel channels separated by 25-microm-wide walls) was created. A fibroblast-seeded collagen matrix was then molded around this PDMS scaffold. The PDMS scaffold served as an internal skeleton to guide the cells to grow in the prescribed three-dimensional pattern. Organization, aspect ratio, and the z diameter of the cells were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts elongated and organized in the direction of the channels throughout the height of the scaffold. The mean angle of the cells off of the long axis of the channels was 4.3 +/- 0.7 degrees as opposed to 32.6 +/- 2.2 degrees in controls. The morphology of the cells was also affected by the PDMS scaffold. The nuclei were longer (1.25x) and thinner (0.75x) than in control gels; however, no changes in diameter of the cells in the z direction were seen.
| Control of flow in the evaluation of blood compatibility of biomaterials
Friedman, L. I. and P. D. Richardson (1972), Bull N Y Acad Med 48(2): 429-51.
| Control of in vivo microvessel ingrowth by modulation of biomaterial local architecture and chemistry
Sanders, J. E., A. B. Baker, et al. (2002), J Biomed Mater Res 60(1): 36-43.
Abstract: We developed a method for controlling local architecture and chemistry simultaneously in biomaterial implants to control microvessel ingrowth in vivo. Porous polypropylene disks (5 mm in diameter and 40 microm thick) were plasma-coated with a fluoropolymer and then laser-drilled with 50-microm-diameter holes through their thickness. We then oxidized the disks to create hydroxyl functionality on the exposed polypropylene (inside the holes). Acrylamide was grafted to the hydroxyl groups through polymerization in the presence of activating ceric ions. Staining with toluidine blue O demonstrated that grafting occurred only inside the holes. We used the Hoffman degradation reaction to convert the amide groups of acrylamide to amine groups, and then we used ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to attach biomolecules of interest inside the holes: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) peptide Lys-Gly-His-Lys (KGHK; angiogenic), thrombospondin-2 (TSP; antiangiogenic), or albumin (rat; neutral). In vivo testing in a rat subcutaneous dorsum model for a 3-week interval demonstrated a greater vessel surface area (p = 0.032) and a greater number of vessels (p = 0.043) in tissue local to the holes with KGHK-immobilized disks than with TSP-immobilized disks. However, differences between KGHK-immobilized and albumin-immobilized disks were less significant (p = 0.120 and p = 0.289 for the vessel surface area and number of vessels, respectively). The developed methods have potential applications in biomaterial design applications for which selective neovascularization is desired.
| Control of phase composition in hydroxyapatite/tetracalcium phosphate biphasic thin coatings for biomedical applications
Kim, H., R. P. Camata, et al. (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(10): 961-6.
Abstract: Biphasic calcium phosphates comprising well-controlled mixtures of nonresorbable hydroxyapatite and other resorbable calcium phosphate phases often exhibit a combination of enhanced bioactivity and mechanical stability that is difficult to achieve in single-phase materials. This makes these biphasic bioceramics promising substrate materials for applications in bone tissue regeneration and repair. In this paper we report the synthesis of highly crystalline, biphasic coatings of hydroxyapatite/tetracalcium phosphate with control over the weight fraction of the constituent phases. The coatings were produced by pulsed laser deposition using ablation targets of pure crystalline hydroxyapatite. The fraction of tetracalcium phosphate phase in the coatings was controlled by varying the substrate temperature and the partial pressure of water vapor in the deposition chamber. A systematic study of phase composition in the hydroxyapatite/tetracalcium phosphate biphasic coatings was performed with X-ray diffraction. Tetracalcium phosphate in the coatings obtained at high substrate temperature is not formed by partial conversion of previously deposited hydroxyapatite. Instead, it is produced by nucleation and growth of tetracalcium phosphate itself from the ablation products of the hydroxyapatite target or by accretion of tetracalcium phosphate grains formed during ablation. This finding was confirmed by formation of calcium oxide, not tetracalcium phosphate, after annealing of pure hydroxyapatite coatings at high temperatures of 700-850 degrees C.
| Control of surface morphology of carbide coating on Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy
Vandamme, N. S. and L. D. Topoleski (2005), J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(7): 647-54.
Abstract: Wear of materials used in artificial joints is a common failure mode of artificial joints. A low wear rate for implants is believed to be critical for extending implant service time. We developed a carbide-coated Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy created in plasma of methane and hydrogen mixed gas by a microwave plasma-assisted surface reaction. The carbide-coated Co-Cr-Mo has a unique "brain coral-like" surface morphology and is much harder than uncoated Co-Cr-Mo. The effect of plasma processing time and temperature on the surface morphology of the top carbide layer was studied toward optimizing the surface coating. The ratios of average roughness, Ra, core roughness, Rk, and summation of core roughness, reduced peak height (Rpk) and reduced valley depth (Rvk), Rk+Rpk+Rvk, for the 6-h/985 degrees C coating to those for the 0.5-h/985 degrees C coating were 1.9, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively. The ratios of Ra, Rk, and Rk+Rpk+Rvk for the 4-h/1000 degrees C coating to those for the 4-h/939 degrees C coating were 2.3, 2.3, and 2.0, respectively. With the proper combination of plasma processing time and temperature, it may be possible to change the thickness of the peak-valley top cluster by fourfold from approximately 0.6 microm to approximately 2.5 microm. Finally, the growth mechanism of the carbide layers on Co-Cr-Mo was discussed in the context of atomic composition analysis.
| Control of the renal artery and vein with the nonabsorbable polymer ligating clip in hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy
Baldwin, D. D., P. J. Desai, et al. (2005), Transplantation 80(3): 310-3.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The large and variable size of the renal vein has prompted most surgeons to select linear stapling devices to secure the vein during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Although effective, these stapling devices have a potential for misfire. Use of the nonabsorbable polymer ligating (NPL) clip during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy provides increased graft vessel length compared with the stapling device, and the NPL clip has a locking mechanism which may increase security compared with standard titanium clips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the NPL clip for control of the renal artery and vein during hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 50 consecutive HALDN patients was conducted where two parallel NPL clips were used to control both the renal artery and vein. Information collected included demographic data, operative and postoperative data, and complications. RESULTS: Mean donor age was 33.4 years and body mass index was 25.8 kg/m2. Mean operative time was 266.0 min, mean hospital stay was 3.2 days, and mean warm ischemia time was 123.3 seconds. There were no transfusions, open conversions, or complications related to use of the NPL clip. A US 16,300 dollars disposable cost savings was seen during this 1-year period alone. CONCLUSIONS: The NPL clip was 100% safe and effective in controlling the renal artery and vein during HALDN, allowed for additional vessel length, and resulted in a disposable cost savings of US 362 dollars per patient.
| Controllable preparation of Nano-MgO and investigation of its bactericidal properties
Huang, L., D. Q. Li, et al. (2005), J Inorg Biochem 99(5): 986-93.
Abstract: Samples of nano-MgO with varying particle sizes were prepared by four different methods using Mg(NO3)2.6H2O, Na2CO3, urea and ammonia as raw materials and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low temperature N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and FT-IR spectroscopy. Bactericidal experiments with Bacillus subtilis var. niger and Staphylococcus aureus were carried out using as-synthesized nano-MgO samples and the bactericidal mechanism was also investigated. The results showed that the bactericidal efficacy of nano-MgO increases with decreasing particle size. The bactericidal efficacy of the samples was compared with that of TiO2, a common photoactive bactericidal material. The nano-MgO has better bactericidal activity, both when used directly and as an additive in an interior wall paint. Furthermore, nano-MgO is active even in the absence of irradiation.
| Controlled assembly of jammed colloidal shells on fluid droplets
Subramaniam, A. B., M. Abkarian, et al. (2005), Nat Mater 4(7): 553-6.
Abstract: Assembly of colloidal particles on fluid interfaces is a promising technique for synthesizing two-dimensional microcrystalline materials useful in fields as diverse as biomedicine, materials science, mineral flotation and food processing. Current approaches rely on bulk emulsification methods, require further chemical and thermal treatments, and are restrictive with respect to the materials used. The development of methods that exploit the great potential of interfacial assembly for producing tailored materials have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the assembly process. Here we report a microfluidic method that allows direct visualization and understanding of the dynamics of colloidal crystal growth on curved interfaces. The crystals are periodically ejected to form stable jammed shells, which we refer to as colloidal armour. We propose that the energetic barriers to interfacial crystal growth and organization can be overcome by targeted delivery of colloidal particles through hydrodynamic flows. Our method allows an unprecedented degree of control over armour composition, size and stability.
| Controlled delivery of paclitaxel from stent coatings using poly(hydroxystyrene-b-isobutylene-b-hydroxystyrene) and its acetylated derivative
Sipos, L., A. Som, et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(5): 2570-82.
Abstract: A poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) triblock polymer is employed as the polymer drug carrier for the TAXUS Express2 Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent system (Boston Scientific Corp.). It has been shown that the release of paclitaxel (PTx) from SIBS can be modulated by modification of either drug-loading ratio or altering the triblock morphology by blending. In the present work, results toward achieving release modulation of PTx by chemical modification of the styrenic portion (using hydroxystyrene or its acetylated version) of the SIBS polymer system are reported. The synthesis of the precursor poly[(p-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxystyrene)]-b-isobutylene-b-[(p-tert-butyl dimethylsilyloxystyrene] triblock copolymers was accomplished by living sequential block copolymerization of isobutylene (IB) and p-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)styrene (TBDMS) utilizing the capping-tuning technique in a one-pot procedure in methylcyclohexane/CH3Cl at -80 degrees C. This procedure involved the living cationic polymerization of IB with the 5-tert-butyl-1,3-bis(1-chloro-1-methylethyl)benzene/TiCl4 initiating system and capping of living difunctional polyisobutylene (PIB) chain ends with 1,1-ditolylethylene (DTE) followed by addition of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti(OIp)4) to lower the Lewis acidity before the introduction of TBDMS. Deprotection of the product with tetrabutylammonium fluoride yielded poly(hydroxystyrene-b-isobutylene-b-hydroxystyrene), which was quantitatively acetylated to obtain the acetylated derivative. The hydroxystyrene and acetoxystyrene triblock copolymers have acceptable mechanical properties for use as drug delivery coatings for coronary stent applications. It was concluded that the hydrophilic nature of the endblocks and polarity effects on the drug/polymer miscibility lead to enhanced release of PTx from these polymers. The drug-polymer miscibility was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy evaluations.
| Controlled fabrication of a biological vascular substitute
Stitzel, J., J. Liu, et al. (2006), Biomaterials 27(7): 1088-94.
Abstract: Autologous and synthetic vessel grafts have been used as a vascular substitute for cardiovascular bypass procedures. However, these materials are limited by the availability of appropriate caliber autologous vessels, increased susceptibility to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia following surgery. Electrospinning technology offers the potential for controlling composition, structure and mechanical properties of biomaterials. Vascular graft scaffolds have been fabricated using electrospun polymer blends of Type I collagen, elastin from ligamentum nuchae, and poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide). This study demonstrates improved electrospinning characteristics versus previous studies by increasing polymer concentration and adding PLGA to the polymer blend. Additionally, new in vitro biocompatibility and mechanical testing data is presented. The scaffolds possess tissue composition and mechanical properties similar to native vessels. The electrospun vessel matrix is biocompatible and does not elicit local or systemic toxic effects when implanted in vivo. This study demonstrates the promise of electrospinning as a fabrication process for a functional vascular graft for clinical use.
| Controlled phospholipid functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes
He, P. and M. W. Urban (2005), Biomacromolecules 6(5): 2455-7.
Abstract: These studies show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be effectively modified using phospholipids. Using a simple surface modification of SWNTs, followed by deposition of 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DCPE) phosphipid, results in stable water-dispersible SWNTs with highly uniform thickness.
| Controlled release from fibers of polyelectrolyte complexes
Liao, I. C., A. C. Wan, et al. (2005), J Control Release 104(2): 347-58.
Abstract: Controlled release systems for delicate compounds, such as proteins, often suffer the drawbacks of decreased bioactivity and low encapsulation efficiency. This study introduces the concept of producing drug-loaded fibers from interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation. Chitosan-alginate fibers were produced by pulling from the interface between two polyelectrolyte solutions at room temperature. Depending on the component properties, the release time of encapsulated components from these fibers can range from hours to weeks. Dexamethasone was completely released within 2 h, whereas charged compounds such as BSA, PDGF-bb, and avidin showed sustained release for 3 weeks. The fibers were able to release PDGF-bb in a steady fashion for over 3 weeks without an initial burst. Furthermore, the bioactivity of PDGF-bb was retained over this period. Release kinetics could be controlled by the inclusion of heparin, which contains specific binding sites for various growth factors. By varying the alginate/heparin ratios in the anionic polyelectrolyte solution, the release of PDGF-bb could be significantly altered. In this study, interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation has been demonstrated to be a promising technique for producing drug-loaded fibers with high encapsulation efficiency, sustained release kinetics, and capacity to retain the bioactivity of the encapsulants.
| Controlled release of a model antibacterial drug from a novel self-lubricating silicone biomaterial
Malcolm, R. K., S. D. McCullagh, et al. (2004), J Control Release 97(2): 313-20.
Abstract: There is considerable interest in developing medical devices that provide controlled delivery of biologically active agents, for example, to reduce the incidence of device-related infection. Silicone elastomers are one of the commonest biomaterials used in medical device production. However, they have a relatively high coefficient of friction and the resulting lack of lubricity can cause pain and tissue damage on device insertion and removal. Novel silicone cross-linking agents have recently been reported that produce inherently 'self-lubricating' silicone elastomers with very low coefficients of friction. In this study, the model antibacterial drug metronidazole has been incorporated into these self-lubricating silicone elastomers to produce a novel bioactive biomaterial. The in vitro release characteristics of the bioactive component were evaluated as a function of cross-linker composition and drug loading. Although conventional matrix-type release kinetics were observed for metronidazole from the silicone systems, it was also observed that increasing the concentration of the cross-linking agent responsible for the lubricious character (tetra(oleyloxy)silane) relative to that of the standard non-lubricious cross-linking agent (tetrapropoxysilane) produced an increase in the metronidazole flux rate by up to 65% for a specified drug loading. The results highlight the potential for developing lubricious silicone medical devices with enhanced drug release characteristics.
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