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Articles about Biomaterials
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Biomaterials Articles

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Biomaterials and collagen synthesis
Cohen, I. K., R. F. Diegelmann, et al. (1976), J Biomed Mater Res 10(6): 965-70.
Abstract: A highly reactive biomaterial (clay) and a relatively nonreactive substance (silicone) were implanted separately in primarily closed incisions on the backs of rats. Collagen synthesis was determined in biopsies from each test site after 8 days. The biochemical measurements of collagen synthesis showed a significant correlation with the gross pathologic and histologic findings.

Biomaterials and Granulomas
Griffiths, M. M., J. J. Langone, et al. (1996), Methods 9(2): 295-304.
Abstract: The rapidly expanding use of implants for reconstruction and repair of diseased or traumatized tissues and organs has fueled the search for biomaterials that are stable, nontoxic, and biologically inert. Unfortunately, implants frequently cause acute or chronic inflammation resulting in tissue damage and rejection. Inflammation usually occurs at the biomaterial-tissue interface and reflects surface adsorption of plasma proteins, complement activation, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, hyperplasia, and release of inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes. If the biomaterial degrades, either spontaneously or due to biologic activity, components can leach into surrounding tissues and may enter the circulation, causing toxic effects systemically and in distant sites. Inflammation of connective tissues in genetically susceptible individuals can potentially activate the immune system and break tolerance to tissue-specific antigens. Experimentally induced animal models of arthritis chronicle the evolution of a chronic, destructive inflammation localized to peripheral joints. Models of autoimmune arthritis involve hyperimmunization with heterologous cartilage components, such as type II collagen or proteoglycan, leading to cross-reactivity with self-cartilage. Other apparently nonimmune models, oil-induced arthritis and pristane arthritis, may reflect granuloma formation and uncontrolled cytokine production. The antigen-induced arthritis model, developed by hyperimmunization with a foreign antigen that is subsequently injected into the joint cavity, is ideal for biocompatibility testing of cationic substances that may be immunogenic. This variety of models offers the means to understand adverse implant-tissue interactions and granuloma formation such that safer biomaterials can be developed in the future.

Biomaterials and herniology
Berliner, S. D. (1984), Jama 251(11): 1431-2.

Biomaterials and immune system: cellular reactivity towards PTFE and Dacron vascular substitutes pointed out by the leukocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) test
Lodi, M., G. Cavallini, et al. (1988), Int Angiol 7(4): 344-8.
Abstract: Thirty-eight patients affected by peripheral vascular insufficiency, and twelve healthy volunteers, were submitted to a cellular immunity test: LAI test, in which leukocytes fail to adhere to glass in contact with a sensitizing antigen. Patients were divided as follows: Class 1: Dacron+PTFE grafted patients, Class 2: Dacron, Class 3: PTFE, Class 4: controls. Total leukocytes, mononuclear cells, T and B lymphocytes were used as cellular populations. Finely minced Dacron and PTFE fabric vascular prostheses were employed as targets. This research showed that a T cellular immune-reactivity towards Dacron and PTFE respectively occurs in Dacron and PTFE grafted patients, and that reactivity is greater in case of Dacron. Wider researches are required to state the immune system role in fabric prostheses patency; at this regard, must be kept in mind that T lymphocytes release thrombogenic factors in course of cellular immune response.

Biomaterials and implantable devices: discoveries in the spine surgery arena
Benzel, E. C., L. A. Ferrara, et al. (2002), Clin Neurosurg 49: 209-25.

Biomaterials and medical implant science
Brunski, S. B. (1995), Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 10(6): 649-50.

Biomaterials and scaffolds in reparative medicine
Chaikof, E. L., H. Matthew, et al. (2002), Ann N Y Acad Sci 961: 96-105.
Abstract: Most approaches currently pursued or contemplated within the framework of reparative medicine, including cell-based therapies, artificial organs, and engineered living tissues, are dependent on our ability to synthesize or otherwise generate novel materials, fabricate or assemble materials into appropriate 2-D and 3-D forms, and precisely tailor material-related physical and biological properties so as to achieve a desired clinical response. This paper summarizes the scientific and technological opportunities within the fields of biomaterials science and molecular engineering that will likely establish new enabling technologies for cellular and molecular therapies directed at the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of diseased or damaged organs and tissues.

Biomaterials applicability: establishing suitable "materials' equivalency" protocols
Baier, R. E. (1994), J Appl Biomater 5(4): 377-8.

Biomaterials as foods
Lucas, P. W. (1980), Symp Soc Exp Biol 34: 463-4.

Biomaterials aspects of porous microcarriers for animal cell culture
Cahn, F. (1990), Trends Biotechnol 8(5): 131-6.
Abstract: Porous microcarriers are new support materials with important advantages in both industrial cell-culture processes and the culture of cells of medical importance. Porous microcarriers are now commercially available with internal architecture and surface chemistry suitable for culture of both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent animal cells.

Biomaterials availability in the U.S
Galletti, P. M. (1996), J Biomed Mater Res 32(3): 289-91.

Biomaterials availability: development of a characterization strategy for interchanging silicone polymers in implantable medical devices
Gould, J. A., B. Liebler, et al. (1993), J Biomater Appl 4(4): 355-8.

Biomaterials availability: the public policy challenge
Foote, S. B. (1997), Asaio J 43(3): 261-2.

Biomaterials clinical research. Anterior and posterior composites
Leinfelder, K. F. and T. B. Sluder (1978), N C Dent J 61(2-4): 35-6, 41.

Biomaterials community examines biosensor biocompatibility
Moussy, F. and W. M. Reichert (2000), Diabetes Technol Ther 2(3): 473-7.

Biomaterials crisis in the medical device industry: is litigation the only cause?
de Mol, B. A. and G. L. van Gaalen (1996), J Biomed Mater Res 33(1): 53-4.

Biomaterials entrepreneurship
Ellis, J. R. (1988), J Biomater Appl 2(3): 328-40.
Abstract: Entrepreneurial companies in biomaterials serve a valuable function in lowering the risk of developing new products and devices. In many cases liability considerations and a pragmatic conservatism make it difficult for established health-care products suppliers to develop new products directly. Biomaterials entrepreneurs encounter more difficulties in achieving commercial success than do entrepreneurs in other fields. For any reasonable profit to be made, the entrepreneur must be able to convert the biomaterial into a useful device. Safety and toxicity test data collection take a minimum of three years to collect, and it is often five or more years before a positive cash flow can be obtained. Start-up funding can be obtained from government agencies, charitable foundations, and private investment capital. A major health-care company can often be attracted once initial successes have been achieved. Biomaterials usage and device design is specific for each function or need. Specific devices that are currently needed are small (c. 4 mm) diameter artificial blood vessels, synthetic skin, and internal prosthetic devices which have better tissue compatibility, abrasion, corrosion, and wear resistance especially for flexing devices such as artificial joints, ligaments and tendons.

Biomaterials for "tension-free" hernioplasties and principles of their applications
Amid, P. K., I. L. Lichtenstein, et al. (1995), Minerva Chir 50(9): 821-6.
Abstract: Although decreasing, there exists an unjustified fear of mesh for the repair of inguinal and incisional hernias. This is due to the negative experience of the past when ideal biomaterials were not available. At the time of introduction of Marlex mesh by Francis Usher, three decades ago, ideal suture material for fixation of the mesh was not available and created undesirable complications. This compounded the fear of mesh for the repair of abdominal wall hernias. With the variety of prosthetic and suture materials available today, the importance of biomaterials in abdominal wall hernia surgery is increasingly appreciated. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some important requirements of ideal biomaterials and principles of their surgical application.

Biomaterials for abdominal wall hernia surgery and principles of their applications
Amid, P. K., A. G. Shulman, et al. (1994), Langenbecks Arch Chir 379(3): 168-71.
Abstract: This article focuses special attention on the porosity, cellular permeability and molecular permeability of biomaterials and their effect on infection, host tissue incorporation and seroma formation when mesh is used for the repair of abdominal wall hernias. Furthermore, the general principles of the application of biomaterials, regardless of the technique used for their employment, is discussed.

Biomaterials for alveolar ridge maintenance and augmentation
Legeros, R. Z. and B. Penugonda (1983), N Y State Dent J 49(8): 570-5.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006