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Adsorption and desorption characteristics of mercury(II) ions using aminated chitosan bead
Jeon, C. and K. H. Park (2005), Water Res 39(16): 3938-44.
Abstract: Adsorption and desorption characteristics for mercury ions using aminated chitosan bead which showed very high affinity to mercury ions were studied. The adsorption of mercury ions using aminated chitosan bead was an exothermic process since binding strength each other increased as the temperature decreased. And the adsorption of mercury ions was almost completed in 100 min at 150 rpm. In case that adsorbent dose increased, mercury uptake capacity decreased, while, removal efficiency increased. The beads were not greatly affected by the ionic strength, organic material and alkaline-earth metal ions. Mercury ions adsorbed on aminated chitosan bead were desorbed effectively about 95% by EDTA and the adsorption capacity of the recycled beads can still be maintained at 90% level at the 5th cycle.

Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene on titanium dioxide
Demeestere, K., H. Van Langenhove, et al. (2001), Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet 66(4): 173-7.

Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials
Minamisawa, M., H. Minamisawa, et al. (2004), J Agric Food Chem 52(18): 5606-11.
Abstract: We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples.

Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of acid dyes on a carboxymethylated chitosan-conjugated magnetic nano-adsorbent
Chang, Y. C. and D. H. Chen (2005), Macromol Biosci 5(3): 254-61.
Abstract: The monodisperse chitosan-conjugated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 13.5 nm were fabricated by the carboxymethylation of chitosan and its covalent binding onto Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles via carbodiimide activation. The carboxymethylated chitosan (CMCH)-conjugated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with about 4.92 wt.-% of CMCH had an isoelectric point of 5.95 and were shown to be quite efficient as anionic magnetic nano-adsorbent for the removal of acid dyes. Both the adsorption capacities of crocein orange G (AO12) and acid green 25 (AG25), as the model compounds, decreased with increasing pH, and the decreasing effect was more significant for AO12. On the contrary, the increase in the ionic strength decreased the adsorption capacity of AG25 but did not affect, obviously, the adsorption capacity of AO12. By the addition of NaCl and NaOH, both AO12 and AG25 could desorb and their different desorption behavior could be attributed to the combined effect of pH and ionic strength. From the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics studies, it was found that both the adsorption processes of AO12 and AG25 obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Langmuir isotherm, and might be surface reaction-controlled. Furthermore, the time required to reach the equilibrium for each one was significantly shorter than those using the micro-sized adsorbents due to the large available surface area. Also, based on the weight of chitosan, the maximum adsorption capacities were 1 883 and 1 471 mg x g(-1) for AO12 and AG25, respectively, much higher than the reported data. Thus, the anionic magnetic nano-adsorbent could not only be magnetically manipulated but also possessed the advantages of fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity. This could be useful in the fields of separation and magnetic carriers. [formula in text].

Adsorption of As(V) and As(III) by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide
Pena, M. E., G. P. Korfiatis, et al. (2005), Water Res 39(11): 2327-37.
Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in removing arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)] and in photocatalytic oxidation of As(III). Batch adsorption and oxidation experiments were conducted with TiO(2) suspensions prepared in a 0.04 M NaCl solution and in a challenge water containing the competing anions phosphate, silicate, and carbonate. The removal of As(V) and As(III) reached equilibrium within 4h and the adsorption kinetics were described by a pseudo-second-order equation. The TiO(2) was effective for As(V) removal at pH<8 and showed a maximum removal for As(III) at pH of about 7.5 in the challenge water. The adsorption capacity of the TiO(2) for As(V) and As(III) was much higher than fumed TiO(2) (Degussa P25) and granular ferric oxide. More than 0.5 mmol/g of As(V) and As(III) was adsorbed by the TiO(2) at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 0.6mM. The presence of the competing anions had a moderate effect on the adsorption capacities of the TiO(2) for As(III) and As(V) in a neutral pH range. In the presence of sunlight and dissolved oxygen, As(III) (26.7 microM or 2mg/L) was completely converted to As(V) in a 0.2g/L TiO(2) suspension through photocatalytic oxidation within 25 min. The nanocrystalline TiO(2) is an effective adsorbent for As(V) and As(III) and an efficient photocatalyst.

Adsorption of bilirubin with polylysine carrying chitosan-coated nylon affinity membranes
Shi, W., F. Zhang, et al. (2005), J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 819(2): 301-6.
Abstract: Microporous polyamide membranes were activated by bisoxirane and subsequently bound with chitosan (CS) to amplify reactive groups. Then polylysine (PLL) as ligand was immobilized onto the CS-coated nylon membranes. The contents of CS and PLL of PLL-attached membranes were 93.2 and 90.4 mg/g nylon membrane, respectively. Such PLL-attached membranes were used to adsorb bilirubin from the bilirubin-phosphate solution and bilirubin-albumin solution. The adsorption mechanism of bilirubin and the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, albumin concentration and ionic strength on adsorption were investigated by batch experiments. The results showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing the temperature while decreased with increasing the NaCl concentration and albumin concentration, and the adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model well. The result of dynamic experiment showed PLL-attached membranes can well remove the bilirubin from the bilirubin-albumin solution.

Adsorption of fibrinogen on tantalum oxide, titanium oxide and gold studied by the QCM-D technique
Hemmersam, A. G., M. Foss, et al. (2005), Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 43(3-4): 208-15.
Abstract: The adsorption of human fibrinogen on tantalum oxide, titanium oxide and gold surfaces has been studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) at 37 degrees C. Two different protein concentrations have been used, one close to physiological concentration (1 mg/ml) and one significantly lower (0.033 mg/ml). To further characterize the adsorbed fibrinogen layer, the subsequent binding of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies of fibrinogen is studied. We found that the viscoelastic properties of the fibrinogen layer depends strongly on the initial protein concentration. The trend is generally seen for all three surfaces. The fibrinogen layer on gold and tantalum oxide is found to have the same viscoelastic properties, which are different from those found for the fibrinogen layer adsorbed on titanium oxide. The dependency of the surface chemistry on the viscoelastic properties of the fibrinogen layer is observed directly for the 0.033 mg/ml solution, and indirectly through the antibody response for the 1 mg/ml solution. From this we conclude that the orientation and/or denaturation of fibrinogen on a surface depends on the surface chemistry and the protein concentration in the solution, and that the binding of antibodies is a useful way to detect this difference.

Adsorption of glycosaminoglycans onto coral--a new possible implant biomaterials for regeneration therapy
Volpi, N. (1999), Biomaterials 20(15): 1359-63.
Abstract: The adsorption of glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronan) onto coral has been investigated. Granules of natural coral of specific diameter, between 100 and 500 microm, having high content of calcium (> 98%) and a homogeneous surface adsorb glycosaminoglycans with different capacity. Heparin (maximum adsorption 1.29 +/- 0.10 mg/20 mg of coral, 6.45% w/w) is adsorbed more than highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate species (maximum adsorption of 0.90 +/- 0.06 mg/20 mg of coral, 4.50% w/w), chondroitin sulfate (maximum adsorption of 0.72 +/- 0.06 mg/20 mg of coral, 3.60% w/w), dermatan sulfate (maximum adsorption of 0.70 +/- 0.06 mg/20 mg of coral, 3.50% w/w) and heparan sulfate (maximum adsorption of 0.72 +/- 0.07 mg/20 mg of coral, 3.60% w/w). Hyaluronan is not adsorbed onto granules of coral. The percentage adsorption of polyanions onto coral depends mainly on their charge density, with sulfate groups being more important than carboxyl groups. This study found no evidence that iduronic acid is more important than glucuronic acid and no role of molecular mass on the adsorption of polysaccharides onto coral was found. The adsorption of glycosaminoglycans is driven by electrostatic interactions with calcium sites of coral that are dependent on pH and blocked in the presence of large amounts of salt. Due to these peculiar properties, the combination of granules of natural coral with glycosaminoglycans makes this material potentially useful in osseointegration in bone metabolism or periodontal therapy.

Adsorption of poly(ethylene glycol)-modified ribonuclease A to a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) surface
Daly, S. M., T. M. Przybycien, et al. (2005), Biotechnol Bioeng 90(7): 856-68.
Abstract: Protein adsorption is a source of variability in the release profiles of therapeutic proteins from biodegradable microspheres. We employ optical reflectometry and total internal reflection fluorescence to explore the extent and kinetics of ribonuclease A (RNase A) adsorption to spin-cast films of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) and, in particular, to determine how covalent grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to RNase A affects adsorption. Adsorption kinetics on PLG surfaces are surface-limited for RNase A but transport-limited for unconjugated PEG homopolymers and for PEG-modified RNase A, indicating that PEG anchors the conjugates to the surface during the transport-limited regime. PEG modification of RNase A decreases the total number of adsorbed molecules per unit area but increases the areal surface coverage because the grafted PEG chains exclude additional surface area. Total internal reflection fluorescence-based exchange measurements show that there is no exchange between adsorbed and solution-phase protein molecules. This indicates an unusually tenacious adsorption. Streaming current measurements indicate that the zeta potential of the PLG surface becomes increasingly negative as the film is exposed to water for several weeks, as expected. Aging of the PLG surface results in increased adsorption of unmodified RNase A but decreased adsorption of unconjugated PEG homopolymers and of PEG-RNase A conjugates, relative to the extent of adsorption on freshly prepared PLG surfaces. Adsorption results correlate well with an increase in the rate, total extent and preservation of bioactivity of RNase A released from PLG microspheres for the PEG-modified version of RNase A.

Adsorption of proteins from infant and adult plasma to biomaterial surfaces
Cornelius, R. M., J. G. Archambault, et al. (2002), J Biomed Mater Res 60(4): 622-32.
Abstract: The hemostatic mechanism of the newborn is immature. In general, the clotting times in screening tests are prolonged, the coagulation factors are low, and the coagulation inhibitors (with the exception of alpha-2-macroglobulin) are low. Recognizing that many of the proteins present in infant plasma are at low levels, it is of interest to determine if, following exposure to artificial surfaces, the profile of adsorbed proteins is different for infant versus adult plasma. The question of whether differences in protein profiles could lead to differences in thromboembolic episodes associated with the use of central venous catheters (or other blood-contacting devices) in infant versus adult subjects also is relevant. To address these issues, the adsorption of proteins from pooled infant plasma and pooled normal adult plasma to three different polymer surfaces (polyvinyl chloride, PVC; polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA; and polyethylene oxide-modified polyurethane, PEO-PU) was studied using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting techniques. The total amount of protein adsorbed to each surface also was determined. It was found that the PMMA and PVC surfaces adsorbed considerably more protein than the PEO-PU surface. Furthermore, the amount of protein adsorbed to the PMMA and PVC surfaces from infant plasma was significantly less than that adsorbed from adult plasma. No such difference was seen for the protein-repellent PEO-PU surface. The immunoblot responses of proteins bound to the PMMA and PVC surfaces from infant plasma were, in general, weaker than those bound from adult plasma. It is likely that these differences were due to decreased protein levels in infant plasma.

Adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent using powder and flake chitosan: equilibrium and kinetic studies
Ahmad, A. L., S. Sumathi, et al. (2005), Water Res 39(12): 2483-94.
Abstract: The adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using chitosan powder and flake has been investigated. POME contains about 2g/l of residue oil, which has to be treated efficiently before it can be discharged. Experiments were carried out as a function of different initial concentrations of residue oil, weight dosage, contact time and pH of chitosan in powder and flake form to obtain the optimum conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The powder form of chitosan exhibited a greater rate compared to the flake type. The results obtained showed that chitosan powder, at a dosage of 0.5g/l, 15min of contact time and a pH value of 5.0, presented the most suitable conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The adsorption process performed almost 99% of residue oil removal from POME. Equilibrium studies have been carried out to determine the capacity of chitosan for the adsorption of residue oil from POME using the optimum conditions from the flocculation at different initial concentrations of residue oil. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well with the Freundlich model. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well with the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step, i.e. chemisorption between residue oil and chitosan. The significant uptake of residue oil on chitosan was further proved by BET surface area analysis and SEM micrographs.

Adsorption of serum alpha-1-microglobulin onto biomaterials
Santin, M., M. Cannas, et al. (1998), J Mater Sci Mater Med 9(3): 135-40.
Abstract: The adsorption of alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha-1-m) from serum to the surface of polymers with different physicochemical properties was investigated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed binding of this protein to the surface of polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and a polyurethane, Chronoflex, after water washing, but only trace levels could be detected on two polymethacrylate derivatives, polymethyl methacrylate and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). alpha-1-m was selectively desorbed from the five materials by sequential washes of serum-conditioned surfaces with isopropanol solutions at increasing concentrations. The presence of alpha-1-m in the washing supernatants was detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The relative binding strength of alpha-1-m to each surface was evaluated as the isopropanol (IsoPOH) concentration required to desorb the protein from that surface. Analysis of bound proteins by SDS-PAGE conclusively demonstrated the binding of a range of serum proteins, including alpha-1-m, to all polymer systems, but with varying binding strengths. The majority of protein was removed by water washing for the polymethacrylate polymers, while varying concentrations of IsoPOH were required to desorb proteins from PS, PVC and Chronoflex. There was a correlation between the hydrophobic nature of the material, determined by water contact angle measurements, and adsorption of alpha-1-m. Immunoblotting of isopropanol-eluted proteins by alpha-1-m antibodies showed the positive staining of a 29 kDa protein as well as selected bands within a molecular weight range of 40 200 kDa, suggesting the adsorption of this protein as both free and complexed forms. The ability of alpha-1-m to adsorb on to material surfaces and to participate in events relevant to the biocompatibility of a polymer, such as bacterial infection or inflammation control, suggests the need for further characterization of the properties of this protein.

Adsorption-driven photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titanium dioxide
Shiraishi, Y., N. Saito, et al. (2005), J Am Chem Soc 127(37): 12820-2.
Abstract: Titanium dioxide with a mesoporous structure, when photoactivated in water, demonstrates an unprecedented photocatalytic activity, driven strongly by an adsorption degree of molecules onto the catalyst surface, which promotes a preferential conversion of a well-adsorbed molecule. This catalyzes a selective transformation of a well-adsorbed molecule into a less-adsorbed molecule, so-labeled "stick-and-leave" transformation, which promotes a direct hydroxylation of benzene to phenol, one of the most difficult synthetic reactions, with very high selectivity (>80%) and using water as a source of oxidant.

Advanced biomaterials development from "natural products"
Baier, R. E. (1988), J Biomater Appl 2(4): 615-26.
Abstract: Natural substances and structures can serve increasingly well as biomedical products, given recent advances in understanding of requirements for biocompatibility and of methods for their preservation and surface tailoring. A successful example is the derivation of limb salvaging vessels, used in arterial reconstructive surgery, from human umbilical cords. There are numerous opportunities for additional product development from the umbilical cords' main ingredient, Wharton's gel, ranging from biolubricants to wound-healing aids. Major problems yet to be overcome with natural starting materials are their propensity for calcification and eventual biodeterioration. Surface modification of biomaterials to exhibit desired degrees of interaction with contacting viable tissues promises the greatest beneficial results. General principles of bioadhesion have broad applicability, predicting material behavior in environments as diverse as blood, saliva, and seawater.

Advanced biomaterials used for a new telescopic retainer for removable dentures
Weigl, P. and H. C. Lauer (2000), J Biomed Mater Res 53(4): 337-47.
Abstract: Telescopic retainers with conical ceramic abutment crowns and electroplated gold copings define a new retainer for removable dentures exhibiting favorable tribological properties that could offer clinical advantages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of this retainer. To do so, a novel treatment modality was developed based on intraoral bonding of the copings to the framework in order to be able to realize, in a clinical setting, the retainer function based on a precision fit. A total of 32 patients wearing 33 dentures (16 mandibular, 17 maxillary; period of risk [months]: minimum = 3; maximum = 58; mean = 27.6), supported by 147 abutments (83 natural teeth, 64 implants) with ceramic abutment crowns (IPS Empress 1, IPS Empress 2, InCeram, Procera, CerAdapt; CeraBase) were followed at 6-month intervals. The ceramic abutment crowns showed low plaque accumulation (mean PI = 17.3%). The gingival tissues around natural abutments were generally free of inflammation; so was the mucosa around the implants (mean SBI = 4.9%). Denture adhesion and occlusion did not change, and there were no rocking movements. The mobility (as determined by Periotest) of 29 teeth was reduced in a highly significant manner within 6 months (t test, p < 0.001). Osseointegration was preserved for all implants. One abutment loosened. Six Empress 1 ceramic copings failed (94.6% Kaplan-Meier survival rate), and one abutment tooth was lost (99.2% survival rate). All patients reported problem-free handling, no rocking movements, and constant adhesion. The adhesive strength of one denture was too low at insertion. 94% of the patients experienced no problems with oral hygiene. The retainer examined has relevant clinical advantages and meets geriatric requirements for removable dentures.

Advances in biomaterials and factors affecting implant fixation
Friedman, R. J. (1992), Instr Course Lect 41: 127-36.

Advances in biomaterials from 1957 to 1997
Craig, R. G. (1999), J Oral Rehabil 26(11): 841-6.
Abstract: The developments in biomaterials over the past 40 years were listed in a questionnaire. Groups of dentists with and without a Master's degree ranked each development on the basis of the impact they believed it has had on the practice of dentistry. The results of the questionnaires were analysed and the rankings were discussed and used as a guide to the projection of the probable future needs and developments in biomaterials, based on the needs of current and future dental patients.

Advances in cranioplasty with osteoinductive biomaterials: summary of experimental studies and clinical prospects
Arnaud, E. (2000), Childs Nerv Syst 16(10-11): 659-68.
Abstract: The surgical repair of large calvarial defects is still a challenge for craniofacial surgeons. Since the discovery of bone growth factors, numerous studies have confirmed the interest of osteoinduction for bone repair. We summarize the findings of experimental and clinical trials carried out with composite bone substitutes. The triple mixture of TGF-beta 1, fibrin glue, and natural coral has proven effective in repairing rabbit skull defects. The same preparation was also efficient for a cranioplasty in two of three patients, age being a limiting factor. The adjunction of bone morphogenetic protein to autologous bone marrow was shown to be a potentiating factor in a rat cranioplasty model, but the combination of fibrin glue and bone marrow on a natural coral carrier was unable to achieve bone repair in children aged 6 years. Although the series were limited, stability and asepsis were important factors in promoting bony ingrowth. Cranioplasties with osteogenic biomaterials may be good option, but the most adequate dose of growth factor should be determined.

Advances in skeletal tissue engineering with hydrogels
Elisseeff, J., C. Puleo, et al. (2005), Orthod Craniofac Res 8(3): 150-61.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Tissue engineering has the potential to make a significant impact on improving tissue repair in the craniofacial system. The general strategy for tissue engineering includes seeding cells on a biomaterial scaffold. The number of scaffold and cell choices for tissue engineering systems is continually increasing and will be reviewed. DESIGN: Multilayered hydrogel systems were developed to coculture different cell types and develop osteochondral tissues for applications including the temporomandibular joint. EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE: Hydrogels are one form of scaffold that can be applied to cartilage and bone repair using fully differentiated cells, adult and embryonic stem cells. OUTCOME MEASURE: Case studies represent an overview of our laboratory's investigations. RESULTS: Bilayered scaffolds to promote tissue development and the formation of more complex osteochondral tissues were developed and proved to be effective. CONCLUSION: Tissue engineering provides a venue to investigate tissue development of mutant or diseased cells and potential therapeutics.

Advancing cartilage tissue engineering: the application of stem cell technology
Raghunath, J., H. J. Salacinski, et al. (2005), Curr Opin Biotechnol 16(5): 503-9.
Abstract: The treatment of cartilage pathology and trauma face the challenges of poor regenerative potential and inferior repair. Nevertheless, recent advances in tissue engineering indicate that adult stem cells could provide a source of chondrocytes for tissue engineering that the isolation of mature chondrocytes has failed to achieve. Various adjuncts to their propagation and differentiation have been explored, such as biomaterials, bioreactors and growth hormones. To date, all tissue engineered cartilage has been significantly mechanically inferior to its natural counterparts and further problems in vivo relate to poor integration and deterioration of tissue quality over time. However, adult stem cells--with their high rate of proliferation and ease of isolation--are expected to greatly further the development and usefulness of tissue engineered cartilage.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006