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Activation of caspase 3 during shear stress-induced neutrophil apoptosis on biomaterials
Shive, M. S., W. G. Brodbeck, et al. (2002), J Biomed Mater Res 62(2): 163-8.
Abstract: Within the complex environment of an implanted cardiovascular device comprised of dynamic flow and foreign materials, phagocytic neutrophils may be ineffective in combating infection due to cellular responses to shear stress. This may be explained, in part, by our recent reports of apoptosis of biomaterial-adherent leukocytes induced through exposure to shear stress. Here we utilize a rotating disk system to generate physiologically relevant shear stress levels (0-18 dynes/cm(2)) at the surface of a polyetherurethane urea (PEUU) and investigate neutrophil intracellular pathways involved in shear-induced apoptosis. In situ detection of activated caspases, the enzymatic mediators of the apoptosis cascade, showed qualitatively that these proteases participate in shear-induced apoptosis and are activated in a shear-dependent manner. The involvement of caspase 3 was confirmed through immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting of extracted neutrophil proteins. Comparative studies with neutrophils adherent under static conditions demonstrated time-dependent activation of caspases in TNF-alpha/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis, for which caspase-3 also was implicated. These findings are the first steps toward elucidation of the mechanisms behind the inappropriate induction of apoptosis by adhesion to biomaterials, which may contribute to the development and persistence of device-related infections.

Activation of neutrophil granulocytes in an in vitro model of a cardiopulmonary bypass
Asberg, A. E. and V. Videm (2005), Artif Organs 29(12): 927-36.
Abstract: Activated neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of postoperative organ dysfunction after surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The researchers used an in vitro roller pump model to investigate the relative importance of the biomaterial, platelets, plasma proteins including activated complement, and flow mode on neutrophil activation as shown by the adhesion, degranulation, and increased the surface expression of CD11b. Neutrophil adhesion to the biomaterial increased with platelet addition, but not with plasma. Biomaterial contact activated neutrophils in a serum-free buffer, but was significantly increased by activated complement. Platelets increased neutrophil degranulation in a serum-free buffer but tended to reduce it in plasma. CD11b expression increased in both media. Complement activation was higher with neutrophils alone than with neutrophils and platelets combined. The roller pump reduced neutrophil adhesion and increased degranulation compared to passive rotation. Neutrophil interaction with platelets and complement were more important for activation than biomaterial contact and use of the roller pump. Improvement of biocompatibility is dependent on modifying complement activation and platelet interaction with neutrophils.

Activation of oxygen at metal surfaces
Carley, A. F., P. R. Davies, et al. (2005), Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci 363(1829): 829-46; discussion 1035-40.
Abstract: Oxygen chemisorption at metal surfaces has been shown through a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to involve transient states that provide low energy pathways for a wide range of surface reactions including the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and hydrocarbons. The kinetically 'hot' transients are disordered and mobile, become unreactive when they form ordered structures, and are characterized by non-classical kinetic behaviour.The role of surface additives (caesium) in controlling oxygen structures and the implications of oxygen transients for theory and reaction mechanisms in applied catalysis are considered.

Activation of platelet-rich plasma using thrombin receptor agonist peptide
Landesberg, R., A. Burke, et al. (2005), J Oral Maxillofac Surg 63(4): 529-35.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study proposes an alternative preparation method of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Specifically, we compare the use of thrombin receptor agonist peptide-6 (TRAP) and bovine thrombin as a clotting agent in the preparation of PRP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PRP was prepared by centrifugation and clotted with thrombin or TRAP. In vitro clotting times were monitored as a function of TRAP concentration, and clot retraction was determined by measuring clot diameter over time. Following the optimization of TRAP concentration, experiments were repeated with the addition of several commercially available bone substitutes. The release of PRP-relevant growth factors as a function of PRP preparation was also determined. RESULTS: The most rapid polymerization of PRP takes place with the addition of thrombin, followed by TRAP/Allogro (Ceramed, Lakewood, CO), TRAP/BioGlass (Mo-Sci, Rolla, MN), TRAP/BioOss (Osteohealth, Shirley, NY), and TRAP alone. Thrombin caused considerable clot retraction (43%), whereas TRAP alone resulted in only 15% retraction. TRAP/Allogro, TRAP/BioOss, and TRAP/BioGlass all exhibited minimal retraction (8%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of TRAP to activate clot formation in the preparation of PRP may be a safe alternative to bovine thrombin. It results in an excellent working time and significantly less clot retraction than the currently available methods of PRP production.

Activation of the cyclic AMP pathway in cells adhering to biomaterials: regulation by vitronectin- and fibronectin-integrin binding
Faucheux, N., B. Haye, et al. (2000), Biomaterials 21(10): 1031-8.
Abstract: Our previous studies have shown that cells adhering to biomaterials in serum-free conditions increase their content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and become aggregated. In cells on an acrylonitrile membrane (AN69), these biochemical and morphological changes are prevented by adding 10% foetal calf serum (FCS) to the medium; cells on the cellulose membrane Cuprophan (CU) remain unaffected. The present study examines the roles of vitronectin (VN)- and/or fibronectin (FN)-integrin binding in this inhibition. Competitively blocking VN- and FN-receptors with echistatin increased intracellular cAMP significantly and caused cells on AN69 to aggregate, but did not modify cAMP-dependent cell aggregation on CU. VN or FN adsorbed onto CU also inhibited cAMP production by attached cells and prevented their aggregation, whereas adsorbed BSA had no effect. Therefore, the binding of VN or FN to cell-surface integrins seems to limit the activation of the cAMP pathway initiated by the substratum itself.

Activation of the plasma coagulation system induced by some biomaterials
Cenni, E., G. Ciapetti, et al. (1996), J Biomed Mater Res 31(1): 145-8.
Abstract: The ability of some biomaterials to activate plasma coagulation system was examined in vitro. After contact of platelet-rich plasma with biomaterials, some markers of the thrombin formation, i.e., fragment 1 + 2 and fibrinopeptide A, and some inhibitors of the blood coagulation mechanism were tested. Fragment 1 + 2 and fibrinopeptide A were found to be increased by all of the materials, though to a different extent. In particular, fragment 1 + 2 and fibrinopeptide A were significantly increased upon contact with polybutylene terephthalate and with collagen coated polyethylene terephthalate, respectively. Also antithrombin III was shown to decrease following exposure to biomaterials, but statistical significance was found only for polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinylacetate. As a results of this wide range of variability in the parameters, it is advisable to explore the plasma coagulation system with a multiparametric approach in which thrombin formation and coagulation inhibitors are thoroughly investigated.

Activation of valvular interstitial cells is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 interactions with matrix molecules
Cushing, M. C., J. T. Liao, et al. (2005), Matrix Biol 24(6): 428-37.
Abstract: Strategies for the tissue-engineering of living cardiac valve replacements are limited by a lack of appropriate scaffold materials that both permit cell viability and actively contribute to the growth of functional tissues. Components of the extracellular matrix can localize and modify growth factor signals, and by doing so impart instructional stimuli for direction of cell phenotype. Fibronectin, collagen I, and heparin were explored as affinity matrices for sequestering and presenting soluble signaling molecules to control differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) to myofibroblasts. VIC differentiation is commonly characterized by expression of stress fibers containing alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a central mediator of this transition. Both fibronectin and heparin, which are known to possess TGF-beta1 binding interactions, were found to increase VIC alpha-SMA expression (120% and 258% of expression in controls), while VICs cultured on collagen I-modified substrates had diminished alpha-SMA expression (66% of control). Heparin treatment significantly stimulated VIC production of TGF-beta1 at all concentrations tested (50 to 400 mug/ml). Heparin-modified substrates were found to alter cell morphology through increased adsorption of serum proteins, specifically TGF-beta1. In sum, heparin produced alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts through both the de novo production of TGF-beta1, and its localization in the pericellular environment. The addition of heparin to fibronectin-modified substrates led to a synergistic increase in VIC alpha-SMA expression, produced by the reciprocal binding of fibronectin, heparin, cell-produced TGF-beta1. The characterization of molecules, both soluble and insoluble, that control VIC activation will be important for the development of tailored 3D culture environments for tissue-engineering applications.

Actively regulating bioengineered tissue and organ formation
Mooney, D. J., T. Boontheekul, et al. (2005), Orthod Craniofac Res 8(3): 141-4.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Describe current and future approaches to tissue engineering, specifically in the area of bone regeneration. These approaches will allow one to actively regulate the cellular populations participating in this process. DESIGN: Many approaches to actively regulate cellular phenotype are under exploration, and these typically exploit known signal transduction pathways via presentation of specific receptor-binding ligands, and may also deliver mechanical information via the physical bridge formed by the receptor-ligand interactions. Cellular gene expression may also be directly modulated utilizing gene therapy approaches to control tissue regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Significant progress has been made to date in bone regeneration using inductive molecules and transplanted cells, and FDA approved therapies have resulted. While approaches to date have focused on delivery of single stimuli (e.g. one growth factor), future efforts will likely attempt to more closely mimic developmental processes by the delivery of multiple inputs to the cells in spatially and temporally regulated fashions.

Activity and lifetime of urease immobilized using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly on silicon microchannels
Forrest, S. R., B. B. Elmore, et al. (2005), Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121-124: 85-91.
Abstract: Urease has been immobilized and layered onto the walls of manufactured silicon microchannels. Enzyme immobilization was performed using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly. Alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, with enzyme layers "encased" between them, were deposited onto the walls of the silicon microchannels. The polycations used were polyethylenimine (PEI), polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA), and polyallylamine (PAH). The polyanions used were polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyvinylsulfate (PVS). The activity of the immobilized enzyme was tested by pumping a 1 g/L urea solution through the microchannels at various flow rates. Effluent concentration was measured using an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance of a pH sensitive dye. The architecture of PEI/PSS/PEI/urease/PEI with single and multiple layers of enzyme demonstrated superior performance over the PDDA and PAH architectures. The precursor layer of PEI/PSS demonstrably improved the performance of the reactor. Conversion rates of 70% were achieved at a residence time of 26 s, on d 1 of operation, and >50% at 51 s, on d 15 with a six-layer PEI/urease architecture.

Activity and stability of laccase in conjugation with chitosan
Delanoy, G., Q. Li, et al. (2005), Int J Biol Macromol 35(1-2): 89-95.
Abstract: Laccase is one of a few enzymes that can directly reduce oxygen into water under ambient conditions, while oxidizing a variety of aromatic compounds. Its conjugation with chitosan generates a pH-sensitive functional biomaterial that changes its solubility in response to pH variation. The molecular conjugation between laccase and chitosan of different molecular mass was investigated with a carbodiimide reaction to understand the mechanism of the enzyme's activity loss during conjugation. With 81-93% laccase being conjugated, a moderate activity loss (16-28% less than the initial activity) was observed in conjugation solution. A second severe activity loss (63-78% less than the conjugated activity) occurred during a cycle of phase change consisting of precipitation, centrifugation and re-dissolution of the enzyme-chitosan conjugates. The chitosan molecular size has little effect on the first moderate activity loss in the conjugation reaction, but visible effect on the substantial activity loss associated with phase change. Small chitosan molecules gave high residual activity. The conjugated laccase exhibited a high stability in the following repeated phase changes and had the same temperature and pH profile as those of free laccase. Compared to free laccase, the conjugated laccase had a similar affinity (Km), but reduced turnover (kcat) that was adversely affected with increase of molecular mass of chitosan.

Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients
Muniz-Junqueira, M. I., C. Braga Lopes, et al. (2005), Life Sci 77(25): 3141-55.
Abstract: This work evaluated the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, 1 and 8 serum levels in chronic renal failure patients under peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis treatment, compared with chronic renal failure patients without dialysis treatment and healthy individuals, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the action of these therapies on the evolution of chronic renal failure patients. All patients with chronic renal failure (under dialysis or not) showed decreased phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and monocytes. All those in hemodialysis (cellulose acetate or polysulfone membranes) showed a decreased phagocytic capacity. The phagocytic index for neutrophil was 13 times lower than that of the control group for both membranes, whereas for monocytes, only those using polysulfone membrane showed a significant decrease of 4.9 times in phagocytic capacity. There was an acute stimulation of the phagocytosis by neutrophils after a single session of dialysis with both types of membrane, while only cellulose acetate membrane decreased the phagocytic index of monocytes after the hemodialysis session. Patients using cellulose acetate showed a chronic increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha serum levels, while those using polysulfone showed a chronic increase in interleukin 6. After a single hemodialysis procedure, no acute effect of the treatment on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 levels was identified. The decreased phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes may account for the high levels of susceptibility of chronic renal failure patients to infections with pyogenic bacteria and tuberculosis. Furthermore, inflammatory activity may occur with both types of membrane studied, suggesting that it will be useful for these patients to evaluate some anti-inflammatory or anti-cytokine therapies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6, in order to avoid cardiovascular complication.

Acyl-gelatins for cell-hybrid biomaterials: preparation of gelatins with high melting point and affinity for hydrophobic surfaces
Miyamoto, K., H. Chinzei, et al. (2002), Protein Pept Lett 9(6): 521-8.
Abstract: In the development of cell-hybrid biomaterials, the functional activity of cells depends on the selective binding of cells to artificial ligands on the biomaterials. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most important ligand for cell activity. ECM is known to contain collagen, one of whose constituents is gelatin. Although natural gelatin has good cell attachment properties, the melting point of gelatin hydrogel is lower than body temperature. Thus, non-chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel is not a biomaterial that is used for prostheses. In the present study, we report the preparation of acyl-gelatin hydrogels with high melting point (>37 degrees C) and high affinity for hydrophobic surfaces for easy handling for transportation and adhesion activities on the hydrophobic surfaces. In addition, the doubling time of endothelial cells on the coated cell culture plate was faster than that of natural gelatin owing to the higher adhesion activity of acyl-gelatin. The results clearly demonstrated that the acyl-gelatin acted as an interface that enabled cell adhesion to artificial materials surfaces.

Adaptations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis lung environment can include deregulation of zwf, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Silo-Suh, L., S. J. Suh, et al. (2005), J Bacteriol 187(22): 7561-8.
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are highly susceptible to chronic pulmonary disease caused by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that overproduce the exopolysaccharide alginate. We showed here that a mutation in zwf, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), leads to a approximately 90% reduction in alginate production in the mucoid, CF isolate, P. aeruginosa FRD1. The main regulator of alginate, sigma-22 encoded by algT (algU), plays a small but demonstrable role in the induction of zwf expression in P. aeruginosa. However, G6PDH activity and zwf expression were higher in FRD1 strains than in PAO1 strains. In PAO1, zwf expression and G6PDH activity are known to be subject to catabolite repression by succinate. In contrast, FRD1 zwf expression and G6PDH activity were shown to be refractory to such catabolite repression. This was apparently not due to a defect in the catabolite repression control (Crc) protein. Such relaxed control of zwf was found to be common among several examined CF isolates but was not seen in other strains of clinical and environmental origin. Two sets of clonal isolates from individual CF patient indicated that the resident P. aeruginosa strain underwent an adaptive change that deregulated zwf expression. We hypothesized that high-level, unregulated G6PDH activity provided a survival advantage to P. aeruginosa within the lung environment. Interestingly, zwf expression in P. aeruginosa was shown to be required for its resistance to human sputum. This study illustrates that adaptation to the CF pulmonary environment by P. aeruginosa can include altered regulation of basic metabolic activities, including carbon catabolism.

Adaptive crystal formation in normal and pathological calcifications in synthetic calcium phosphate and related biomaterials
Daculsi, G., J. M. Bouler, et al. (1997), Int Rev Cytol 172: 129-91.
Abstract: Mineralization and crystal deposition are natural phenomena widely distributed in biological systems from protozoa to mammals. In mammals, normal and pathological calcifications are observed in bones, teeth, and soft tissues or cartilage. We review studies on the adaptive apatite crystal formation in enamel compared with those in other calcified tissues (e.g., dentin, bone, and fish enameloids) and in pathological calcifications, demonstrating the adaptation of these crystals (in terms of crystallinity and orientation) to specific tissues that vary in functions or vary in normal or diseased conditions. The roles of minor elements, such as carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, hydrogen phosphate, pyrophosphate, and strontium ions, on the formation and transformation of biologically relevant calcium phosphates are summarized. Another adaptative process of crystals in biology concerns the recent development of calcium phosphate ceramics and other related biomaterials for bone graft. Bone graft materials are available as alternatives to autogeneous bone for repair, substitution, or augmentation. This paper discusses the adaptive crystal formation in mineralized tissues induced by calcium phosphate and related bone graft biomaterials during bone repair.

Adequacy of a vancomycin dosing regimen in patients receiving high-flux hemodialysis
Ariano, R. E., A. Fine, et al. (2005), Am J Kidney Dis 46(4): 681-7.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Some investigators have recommended the convenient practice of administering vancomycin doses during the last hour of the hemodialysis treatment. Accepting that a greater amount of vancomycin is lost to dialysis with this recent approach, the objective of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin and assess the adequacy of this dosing regimen in maintaining therapeutic predialysis concentrations. METHODS: A sampling of 22 consecutive patients administered intradialytic vancomycin, 1 g, intravenously (IV) and maintenance doses of 500 mg during the last hour of high-flux dialysis sessions was studied. A population-modeling program and Bayesian pharmacokinetic analysis were used to identify all global and unique pharmacokinetic parameters of interest based on measured vancomycin predialysis concentrations. RESULTS: For the 22 patients studied, this regimen achieved the targeted predialysis concentration range of 5 to 20 microg/mL for 96% of levels, whereas more narrowly within 5 to 15 microg/mL for 86% of levels. Average amount of vancomycin removed during a standardized 3- to 4-hour dialytic session ranged from 30% +/- 7% to 38% +/- 8%. Average elimination half-life of vancomycin on hemodialysis treatment was 5.4 hours (interquartile range, 5.0 to 5.9 hours). Patients showed an average predialysis plasma concentration of 11 +/- 3 microg/mL for the first 7 days of therapy. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that intradialytic dosing with vancomycin using a 1-g IV load and 500 mg IV with subsequent high-flux dialysis sessions conveniently maintains adequate predialysis plasma concentrations. The lack of drug accumulation with this regimen provides convincing support for a limited blood sampling approach to plasma concentration determinations.

Adherence and colonization properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus TB1, a broiler chicken isolate
Bouzaine, T., R. D. Dauphin, et al. (2005), Lett Appl Microbiol 40(5): 391-6.
Abstract: AIMS: Selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from intestinal tract of chicken have been studied in order to investigate their ability to adhere in vitro to Basement Membrane Matrigel (BMM). A selected strain showing a good adherence in BMM test was used for in vivo colonization assays. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro assessment of adhesion of broiler chicken isolates was performed using BMM assay. Among LAB strains tested, Lactobacillus rhamnosus TB1 showed a good adherence that was comparable to the one of an Escherichia coli EPEC strain used as positive control. For in vivo colonization assays this strain was fluorescently stained with the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (cFDA-SE) thus allowing its detection in different layers of intestinal tract after inoculation in broiler chicken. Further, stained L. rhamnosus were found with a highest value in rectum, jejunum and ileum both 3 and 24 h after administration. CONCLUSIONS: BMM assay is a quick method to test in vitro adhesion properties of bacterial strains and cFDA-SE-stained bacteria may be considered as an alternative method to test in vivo adhesion and colonization properties. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Lactobacillus rhamnosus TB1 was therefore showed to be able to adhere strongly in vitro to BMM and in vivo to intestinal epithelial cells of chicken and may be considered as a potential probiotic for chicken.

Adherence of osteoblast-like cells on calcospherites developed on a biomaterial combining poly(2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate and alkaline phosphatase
Filmon, R., M. F. Basle, et al. (2002), Bone 30(1): 152-8.
Abstract: The polymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate (pHEMA) can copolymerize with alkaline phosphatase (AlkP) to form a hybrid material. The enzyme retains its biological activity and forms hydroxyapatite nodules (calcospherites) when polymer pellets are incubated with a synthetic body fluid. Osteoblast-like cells (ROS 17/2.8) were seeded on pellets of pHEMA and pHEMA-AlkP on which calcospherites were grown. They were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with backscattered electron imaging. Cell surface and shape were measured by image analysis combining the SEM images. Cells grown on pHEMA-AlkP had an increased surface area (449 +/- 216 microm(2) vs. 204 +/- 80 microm(2)). The number of filopodia anchoring the cells on the free polymer surface was reduced on pHEMA-AlkP, but numerous thick pseudopodia permitted a direct anchorage on the calcospherites. Pseudopodia were wider and longer than the filopodia. The backscattered images revealed that each cell was seated on 7.1 +/- 1.5 calcospherites and partially covered 10.3 +/- 1.9 others. Antifibronectin and anti-bone sialoprotein antibodies were used to investigate cell attachment. With confocal microscopy, both molecules were located at the interface between the cells and the mineral, inside the cells, and as free molecules on the calcospherites. Immunogold labeling was done with the same antibodies and examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Adsorption of fibronectin and bone sialoprotein was noticeable at the cell/calcospherite interface and on the surface of the hydroxyapatite crystals. Immunogold studies revealed adhesion proteins (bone sialoprotein, fibronectin) to be present at the surface of crystals and at focal points of cell contact.

Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to inanimate polymers including biomaterials
Stone, J. H., M. M. Gabriel, et al. (1999), J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 23(1): 713-7.
Abstract: Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were adhered to polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride, polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate, mixed-acrylic, silicone, and natural latex materials. Planktonic bacteria and bacteria that adhered to the test materials were compared for their uptake of either L-[3,4,5-3H] leucine or [methyl-3H] thymidine during growth in a minimal medium. Leucine incorporation was reduced and thymidine uptake was negligible in adherent bacteria for up to 8 h following primary attachment by which time cells in the planktonic state showed active uptake of both substrates. These reduced uptake periods correlated with lag phases of growth of adherent cells as determined with a sonication-release plate count procedure and analyses of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The extent of the lag phase of the adherent populations was dependent on initial densities of adhered cells and the nature of the substratum.

Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus slime-producing strain variants to biomaterials used in orthopaedic surgery
Gracia, E., A. Fernandez, et al. (1997), Int Orthop 21(1): 46-51.
Abstract: The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to biomaterials used in orthopaedic surgery (polymethylmethacrylate, fresh bone, steel and titanium alloys) and to glass was studied in vitro at 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48 h of incubation. Nonslime-producing strains (72, 80 and 510) and slime-producing variants of these strains were used. An automated and fast method of ATP-bioluminiscence was applied to determine bacterial viability. The lowest adherence corresponded to polymethylmethacrylate and bone, and the highest to metals. Significant adherence was detected in all cases after 6 h and was strain dependent, being lowest for strain 72. In most cases, adherence of nonslime-producing variants was not significant compared with controls, and slime-producing were more adherent than nonslime-producing variants. These differences were maximal at 6 h or 48 h, depending on the strain and the material. The findings suggest that the appearance of slime-producing cells within a given nonslime-producing bacterial population may jeopardise postoperative immune systems and antibiotic efficacy as a consequence of biofilm formation on implants and prostheses.

Adherence to and accumulation of S. epidermidis on different biomaterials due to extracellular slime production. In vitro comparison of a slime-producing strain (Rp 62 A) and its isogenic slime negative mutant (M7)
Konig, D. P., F. Perdreau-Remington, et al. (1999), Zentralbl Bakteriol 289(3): 355-64.
Abstract: In an in vitro study, the bacterial adherence of a slime-producing strain (RP 62 A) was compared with its isogenic slime-negative mutant (M7). Standardized biomaterial discs were incubated under growth conditions in tryptic soy broth containing either strain RP 62 A or M7. After 24 h of incubation, the attached bacteria were removed by sonication and the colony-forming units were counted after plating of serial dilutions. We observed a significantly increased adherence and accumulation of the slime-producing strain (RP 62 A). In contrast to the slime negative mutant (M7) (p = 0.0001). The highest colony counts were found for the slime-producing strain on polyethylene and polymethylmethacrylate. The slime-negative mutant lacked the ability of accumulation. Our in-vitro results show the relevance of slime production by S. epidermidis for in-vitro colonisation of biomaterials, with a preference for polyethylene and polymethylmethacrylate.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006