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[Studies of the inorganic biomaterials in endodontic therapy (Part 1). Clinico-pathological observation of the effect of the alumina ceramic powder on vital exposed human pulp]
Nakagawa, K. I., Y. Arizumi, et al. (1984), Shikwa Gakuho 84(2): 339-49.

[Studies on development of composite biomaterials for reconstruction of the larynx]
Pamula, E., B. Konieczna, et al. (2001), Polim Med 31(1-2): 39-44.
Abstract: The paper presents the results of studies on the development of composite material to be used in laryngology. The composite was manufactured from carbon fibres and polysulfone in the form of multiphase laminate having suitable surface properties. Mechanical properties of three different types of composite materials were analysed. Of the elaborated composites the material possessing the most advantageous mechanical properties was than analysed by means of FTIR and SEM methods. Results obtained permit determination of such composite material in laryngeal and tracheal reconstruction.

[Study of the correlation between in vitro and in vivo evaluation methods on biomaterials--DNA test and muscular implant test]
Wen, X., C. Zhang, et al. (2000), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 17(4): 444-6.
Abstract: With the wide-spread use of biomaterials, the safety evaluation on biomaterials has become a very important step. This study on the correlation between DNA test and muscular implant test was done for finding out good in vitro evaluation method. The tissue toxicities of seven biomaterials were examined. Good correlation between DNA test and muscular implant test was demonstrated by Spearman sequential correlation analysis.

[Study of the corrosion of metallic biomaterials by surface physical methods]
Muster, D., M. Champy, et al. (1983), C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 177(4): 496-503.
Abstract: The authors investigated the corrosion mechanism of metallic implants inserted into the human body in contact with bone. It was shown that a significant degree of corrosion occurred after several months. The dissolution seems to be non-selective but can be different for each individual. The corrosion mechanism is complex, starting with an inter-granular process, but pitting also occurred. The oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ favours the elimination of iron oxides and is followed by the destruction of the local alloy structure. An estimation of the quantity of each type of element released in the organism was also realized.

[Study of the parietal microflora in the rat intestine]
Vorob'ev, A. A., V. Nesvizhskii Iu, et al. (2005), Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol(3): 61-5.
Abstract: The article deals with the adaptation of the existing method of the isolation of microorganisms from parietal mucin of the intestine of experimental animals (rats) with a view to ensure the methodological uniformity of investigations. The effectiveness of the method of sparing disintegration of parietal mucin taken from the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, specially developed for human biomaterial, and its adequacy for microbiological investigations of the digestive organs of rats have been confirmed. A certain similarity between the microbiocenosis of the parietal mucin in the intestine of humans and rats has been established.

[Study on adsorption of human serum protein to biomaterials]
Akagi, K. (1989), Kanagawa Shigaku 24(2): 345-57.
Abstract: In our study of the interaction between dental implant materials and human serum proteins, a simple column chromatographic method to measure extraction of proteins by the biomaterials was developed. The method allows for subsequent analysis of the absorped proteins by two dimensional microelectrophoresis. A system to measure dyestained proteins on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels employing a television camera for data acquisition and a micro computer for data analysis is described. It can be seen that elution from the hydroxyapatite columns are qualitatively similar, more protein eluting at 0.1 M phosphate. Less protein was adsorbed by the 1,250 degrees C and 1,400 degrees C hydroxyapatite ceramics, and equal amounts were eluted with 0.01 M and 0.1 M phosphate solutions. The 0.1 M phosphate eluates were subsequently analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The proteins adsorbed band eluted from the biomaterials, are estimated to be albumin, pl 4.7-4.9; transferin, pl 5.9 and IgG, pl 5.8-7.3. pl's were obtained from literature and tentative identifications made by comparison with the patterns of reference serum. The protein pattern from each biomaterial was reproducible. Albumin, IgG and transferin were obtained from non-treated hydroxyapatite. Different patterns were observed with eluates of 1,250 degrees C and 1,450 degrees C hydroxyapatite ceramics. The large spot, tentatively identified as albumin and a small amount of IgG, were the only proteins seen. We conclude that hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite ceramics can adsorbed of human serum protein. Selective adsorption of protein may occur a structure change of the material surface activated by sintered temperature.

[Study on bone-repairing biomaterial ytterbium oxide-hydroxyapatite]
Qiu, J., J. Zhang, et al. (1998), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 15(1): 26-7.
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite was extensively used to repair osteoshortage recently. To improve its bondibility and X-ray obstructibility, we added ytterbium oxide of different proportions in the synthetic process of hydroxyapatite. Ytterbium oxide is characterized by high activity and X-ray obstructibility. A cheap biomaterial with good biocompatibility and high X-ray obstructibility has been got in this way.

[Study on correlation between in vivo and in vitro tests of biomaterials--correlation between leukocyte chemotaxis test and muscular implant test in rabbits]
Wen, X., C. Zhang, et al. (1999), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 16(3): 263-6, 287.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the results of in vivo and in vitro tests of biomaterials. With muscular implant test and leukocyte chemotaxis test, the levels of tissue toxicity of seven biomaterials were evaluated. The samples with high-level toxicity showed weak leukocyte chemotaxis, which would influence the anti-inflammatory reaction to foreign bodies. By the method of Spearman rank correlation, the coefficient was between 0.89286-0.98198 indicating that the correlation of the two tests is excellent.

[Study on the biocompatibility and toxicology of biomaterials--poly(epsilon-caprolactone)]
Chen, J., C. Huang, et al. (2000), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 17(4): 380-2.
Abstract: Four observation indexes were selected to evaluate the biocompatibility and toxicology of biodegradable materials poly(epsilon-caprolactone)(PCL), which is synthesized in our laboratory using Ti(OBu)4 as an initiator. The results showed that PCL films had a mild inflammatory reaction in the early days of planting and after 3 months the inflammation basically disappeared. We conclude that PCL material possesses good biocompatibility and has a good developmental prospect.

[Study on the method of adsorbing albumin for enwrapping human hard tissue substitute biomaterials]
Yu, K. and Z. Chen (1998), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 15(2): 155-7.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to cover up the surface of human hard tissue substitute biomaterials with albumin. The cidex cross-link method was adopted to adsorb albumin so as to form a membrane for wrapping hydroxyapatite(HA), bio-glass ceramics(BGC), and hydroxyl poly-calcium sodium phosphate (HP). The results showed that this membrane of protein could enwrap the biomaterials so firmly that urea solution could not wash it off.

[Study on the method of combining albumin with biomaterials for selecting a substitute for hard ttissue of human body]
Yu, K. and Z. Chen (1998), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 15(1): 32-3, 46.
Abstract: This study explored the conditions on combining albumin of surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA), bioglass ceramics(BGC) and hydroxyl poly-calcium sodium phosphate (HP) by using the method of BrCN activation. The result demonstrates that albumin can be combined with HP, but it can not be combined with HA and BGC.

[Study on the reconstitution in vitro and photochemical activities of phytochrome from the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803]
Dong, Y. R., Y. Ran, et al. (2004), Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 20(2): 238-44.
Abstract: Genomic DNA sequence analysis of phytochrome like photoreceptors in a number of bacteria revealed several open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins with amino acid sequences homologous to plant phytochromes. The phytochrome like photoreceptors, collectively called bacteriophytochromes, contain an N-terminal domain homologous to the chromophore-binding domain (CBD) of higher plants and a C-terminal domain of histidine kinase domain(HKD). Due to their simple structure, bacteriophytochromes broaden the view of phytochrome evolution and provide us with a simple model to investigate phytochrome-mediated light signal in higher plants. In this report, the bacteriophytochromes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 were investigated. The gene cph1 and its fragment cph1 (C-435) were isolated from the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) using specific primers. Then, the genes were cloned with the vector pBluescript, yielding plasmids pBlu-cphl and pBlu-cph1 (C-435), before they are subcloned with the vector pET30, using the EcoRV and Xho I restriction sites. pBlu-cph1, pBlu-cph1 (N-435) were cleaved with Sma I and Xho I, and the released genes were ligated to the pET30a fragment. The E. coli [strain BL21 (DE3)] cells containing recombinant pET30a were grown in medium RB at 20 degrees C, and harvested 6 h later after induction with isopropyl thio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG). Then, reconstitution systems were employed to study the characteristics of the genes. In the reconstitution system, autoassembly of aprotein of phytochrome with PCB was investigated. The chromophore addition was an autocatalytic process. Reconstitution products were red/infrared (R/FR) photochromic, which was similar to that of the phytoehrome in higher plants. How ever, the spectral change ratios (deltaAmax/deltaAmin) of the two fragments differed from each other. It was also shown that PCB was covalently bound to apo-protein via Zn2+ fluoresc ence SDS-PAGE. After irradiation by light of 700 nm, the maximum absorption spectrum o f holo-Cphl was 650nm. The absorption of it after denaturatior in the dark with ur ea in the presence of hydrochloric acid (pH = 2) was 660nm, which was similar with th at of cis-PCB. In addition, after irradiation by light of 650nm, the maximum absorption spectrum of holo-Cph1 was 700nm. The absorption of it after denaturation in the dark with urea in the presence of hydrochloric acid (pH = 2) was 600nm, which was similar with that of trans-PCB. The result showed that the photochromism of phytochrome resulted from the isomerizaation of chromophore (PCB in this report). The reconstitution of Cph1 (C-435) under the same condition supported the conclusion. Fluorescence emission spectrum of the products suggested that bacteriophytochrom e structure with cis-PCB was more stable than that with trans-PCB. The new reconstitution system in this report sets a base for the application of phytochrome as photochromic biomaterials in biosensors. In addition, phytochrome shows great potential in food, cosmetic and biological engineering, etc.

[Study status of collagen-based biomaterials in drug release and tissue engineering]
Wang, B., K. Y. Wang, et al. (2004), Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 18(2): 112-4.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To introduce the development of the collagen materials in drug release and tissue engineering. METHODS: Literature review and complex analysis were adopted. RESULTS: In recent years, some good progress has been made in the studies of collagen, and study on collagen-based materials has become an investigative hotspot especially in tissue engineering. Some new collagen-based drug delivery and engineered materials have come into clinically-demonstrated moment, which will promote their clinical applications in tissue repairs. CONCLUSION: Collagen has been considered a good potential material in drug release, especially in the tissue-engineering field. To give collagen new characters we should pay more attention to grafting with different function branches through chemistry technique in the future work, except moderate cross-linking treatment or commingling with other nature or synthesized macromolecules.

[Surface structure of anti-thrombotic biomaterial]
Ikada, Y. (1982), Rinsho Byori Suppl 50: 84-92.

[Surgery and research on biomaterials]
Couture, J. and R. Guidoin (1985), Union Med Can 114(2): 116-20.

[Surgical treatment of cystous lesions of the jaws in children using biocomposite material]
Nikitin, A. A., N. V. Titova, et al. (2005), Stomatologiia (Mosk) 84(2): 40-3.
Abstract: Assessment of surgical treatment of cystous lesions of the jaws in children was performed on the basis of the results of treatment of 25 patients with the use of granulated biocomposite material GAP-99. It was shown by the authors that this material allows one to shorten the time of bone wound healing, to improve cosmetic and functional effects during the hospital stage of treatment. In long-term period full rehabilitation was achieved in patients operated with the use of this biocomposite material.

[Synthesis of a bio-active bone-matrix material and study of the cellular biocompatibility]
Hao, J., Q. Zheng, et al. (2005), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 22(3): 433-7.
Abstract: To prepare poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid/ asparagic acid-co- polyethylene glycol) (PLGA-[ASP-PEG]) and examine the cellular biocompatibility. PLGA-[ASP-PEG] was obtained by bulk ring-opening copolymerization method, examined by infrared spectrometry (IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs) were cultured with PLGA-[ASP-PEG] (experiment gruop) and PLGA (control group) in vitro respectively, and were observed by phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The resuls showed that PLGA-[ASP-PEG] was obtained and proved by IR and 1H NMR. The BMSCs of the experiment group could well attach to and extend on the surface of the PLGA-[ASP-PEG], and could proliferate and secrete better extracellular matrix, compared with control. The PLGA-[ASP-PEG] has good cellular a biocompatibility. It can be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

[The actuality and trend of biomaterial effectiveness and safety evaluation]
Zhang, Z., X. Lu, et al. (2002), Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 19(1): 117-21.
Abstract: The evaluation of biomaterial effectiveness and safety is a key step before the biomaterial approaches to clinics. In recent years, lots of new biomaterials with different composition, shape, implant site and use have been coming out and in need of more special, sensitive and systematic evaluation methods. With the development of immunology, microdetective technique, inbred strain mammal and other connective branches, there are many chances for the consummation and integration of biomaterial evaluation system. The three-"R" principle (replace, refine, reduce), that is, developing in vitro experiments, using sensitive, special and advanced evaluation methods, improving and reducing the member of experimental animals, as well as the fundamental rule, that is, establishing an evaluation system covering three levels (molecule, cell and body) will guide the research of biomaterial evaluation to more promising development.

[The carcinogenic potential of biomaterials in hernia surgery]
Ghadimi, B. M., C. Langer, et al. (2002), Chirurg 73(8): 833-7.
Abstract: The implantation of meshes to correct inguinal as well as incisional hernias is widely used in the U.S.A. and Western Europe. The short and long term results of meshes are convincing concerning complications, recurrence rate and patient's comfort. On the other hand side some scientific groups discuss the possibility of malignant tumor development due to implanted meshes. In fact, experimental models exist which demonstrate that soft tissue sarcomas can be induced in mice and rats by implanting artificial materials such as synthetics or metal. Beside millions of hernia repairs using meshes worldwide no patient has been reported with a soft tissue tumor until today. The analyses of molecular markers of proliferation, of apoptosis as well as the modulation of heat shock proteins seem not to prove the carcinogenic potential of meshes. In conclusion, there are no data so far indicating a real risk for humans to develop malignant tumors due to implanted meshes. Therefore we further propagate the implantation of meshes in hernia repair in adult patients.

[The characteristics and properties of calcium phosphates in biomaterial formulations used in dentistry. 1]
Mongiorgi, R., G. Valdre, et al. (1995), Minerva Stomatol 44(1-2): 3-11.
Abstract: In this work we present the features and the properties of natural and synthetic apatites, which we use in an experimental study of various commercial products composed by calcium phosphate. After having considered the general concepts of biomaterials and biocompatibility, we describe non biological tests used for the characterization of these products. Biomaterials used in this study are: reabsorbable Dac Blu, non reabsorbable Dac Blu, non reabsorbable atomized Dac Blu, non reabsorbable thin Dac Blu, reabsorbable Biocoral 450, Calcitite 2040-12, Orthogel, Apagen, BTF 65, Calcitite 4060-2 Osprogel, Bio-oss, Biostite, Osprovit, Merck Hydroxiapatite. Tests used are: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and thermodifferential analysis (TG, DTG, DTA), scanner-ing electron microscopy (SEM) morphological analysis. Last but not least, we underline the particular features of these tests whose interpretation allows a more precise definition of the bioactivity of a biocompatible material.

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Last Modified: 8 February 2006